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The learned author has missed many aspects of Nepalese culture. The so called Virupakshya is described by him as a nobel man. If the author had studied more carefully he would not have missed the third eye indicating that the figure is one of the manifestations of Shiva and not a nobel man.
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Tourism in Nepal
Nepal is a tourist's paradise with an infinite variety of interesting things to see and do. Nepal has many things to offer the visitor the flourishing of art and architecture a demonstrated by the temples of Kathmandu Valley, the natural beauties of the soaring peaks of Himalayas including Mountain Everest and others.
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Nepalese Culture, Society and Tourism
 
The Aqua Culture of Kathmandu
 
 
Antecedent of Bagmati:

The culture of the Kathmandu valley is a riverine culture. Life was possible in Kathmandu because of the rivers like Bagmati, Vishnumati, Rudramati and Ichhumati. Among these rivers Bagmati has the greatest significance in the Nepalese culture. It considered as the Ganges of the Kathmandu valley. The Himvatkhanda of Skanda Purana(scripture) describes the importance and religious merits of Bagmati more than the holy river Ganges saying "Gangatopiyabadhika" as river Bagmati is greater than Ganges if not more by a grain of barley.

For centuries this River Bagamati is of religious important and is very much a way of life for the people of the Kathmandu Valley as it meanders thought the paddy fields from its source above Sundarijal to its exit through Chobhar gorge. In Kathmandu itself all the above rivers Vishnumati, Rudramati and Ichhumatimeet Bagmati and from Sundarighat the rivers flows in the name of Bagmati. It is a nucleus to the rituals and social customs of the inhabitants of the Kathmandu Valley which are enacted daily in the many temples, icons, shrines and bays of Bagmati ghats (bank) that line the riverbanks.

There are many legends and myths concerning the origin of the Bagmati. Nepal Mahatmay Ancient Hindu Purana dating back to the medieval age relates to a story about Prahladha, the king of the demons, who as per the legends, vigorous, went up into the mountains and practised penance for several times. This adherence pleased Shiva that he laughed aloud and, " ...a river was borne out of the laughter of Shiva and it came out of a cave in the mountain, white with the garlands of foam and waves with pure and clean water". Then the lord Shiva name of the river Bagmati, meaning "one connected with speech." It is also believed that in Newari the word "Wa" means saliva . As it came out of mouth of Lord Shiva it was regarded as saliva of Shiva, thus it was named Bagmati. The sacred water is known as Jal , and has the power to purify humankind as well as to carry the soul of a dead person to heaven.

Although most of major religious rituals and festivals in the Kathmandu Valley are closely linked to the Bagmati and its tributaries, it is their role in funeral rites that is most significant. During the Rana period (1846 - 1951 A.D.) and before the sick and the dying were regularly brought to the river bank where they stayed in Sattals (public rest house). The water of Bagmati was thought to have curative powers and in the pure environment along the riverbank the sick would after be revived return home. The Kalmochan Ghat (steps leading down to a river used for both secular and religious purpose) is at the confluence of the Tukucha Khola (Stream) and the Bagmati river. The named Kalmochan signifies the popular belief that those who take their ritual bath at this confluence will not suffer for their sins after death - the essence of purification. Today the Tukucha discharges a foul mixture of sewage and storm water into the Bagmati that it passes through Kathmandu. It is no longer used as a bathing site. Another important ritual connected with this sacred river is Rhshi Panchmi which is part of the women's festival - Teej Brata that take place during Bhadra (August - September). Thousand of Brahmin and Chhetri women from all over the valley flock to Teku bathe 365 times in the Bagmati river and ritually cleanse themselves by brushing their teeth with a twig of Apamarga (leaf of special plant). Having stood in line for up to eight hours they pay a brief homage to a 15 cm high Lingam at the small shrine of Rishiswor, hidden in the National Transport Corporation compound. This side is visited just once a year and is otherwise neglected1 .

The Bagmati, Kalmochan, Bhagawateshwar, Pachali and Teku Dobhan ghats between Thapathali and Teku are some of the most important cremation sites for the citizens of Kathmandu .Even today the tradition is to bring the dying person to the bank of river. This caused to raise many Sattal (public rest house). River water would be poured into the mouth of the dying person then bathed , after that the dead body would be cremated on ritual square platforms; raised for cremation. The ashes thrown into the river. It was and is the Hindu belief that the river carried the departed soul down stream past all the holy sites, sacred of all rivers, then Ganges and finally to heaven. They also offer ancestor worship in the river. The sacred Bagmati and its tributaries has played an essential role in the development of the Kathmandu valley since the earliest settlements of the Lichhavi period (200 - 900 A.D.). There ancient settlement were often sited near a river as an important natural resource, meeting both secular and religious needs. The river banks were also seen to delineate the sacred and profane worlds. Therefore, shrines and temples were after built along these river banks to protect the towns2 . The Bagmati links significant cultural and religious sites that dot the Kathmandu valley from the river's source in the foot hills in the north-east and its exit in the south-east corner. Close to the source lies the cave shrine of Sundarijal and nearby settlement that also disignates the trail to the mountain regions of the Helambu. Several kilometres downstream the fine temple complex of Lord Pashupatinath straddle the river where it enter the valley proper. Where the Bagmati meanders westwards it becomes the boundary between the cities of Kathmandu and Patan. On the Patan bank site the Shankhmul Ghat and a beautiful cluster of temples. The group of temples on the Teku, Thapathali Ghat stretch between the Patan bridge (Ratopul) and the confluence of the Bagmati and Bishnumati 2 kms to the west. Most of the existing structure date from the last century built under the Ranas who ruled Nepal at that time. They range from the well preserved Mugal style Hem Narayan temple built by Jung Bahadur, first of the Rana Prime Ministers, to the traditional Nepali style temple of Tripureshor. Local lore professes that the temple at the confluence of the two rivers at the Teku end were founded at the time of the creation of the valley, be it mythic time or an historic date conferring the name of Nepal. The confluence, despite its present fifty state is still a holy cremation site for both Hindu and Buddhist dead. Close to this point is located Pachli Bairab, an important religious nucleus that was once surrounded by a park with meadows, tree and ponds. All of the 28 monuments of the site merit protection as important sacred and cultural sites by inclusion in Kathmandu valley inventory. But over the last 16 years this once pristine and sacred section of Bagmati River has deteriorated into a main rubbish and sewerage dumping site for the city of Kathmandu and the ritual bathing Ghats have been abandoned to squatters. The river leaves this valley in the cleft known as the Chobhar gorge, the Chobhar Ganesh complex sits as one of the four spiritual guardian temple of the valley3 . The river has big significance. So it would not be wrong to say that the culture of Kathmandu is an aqua culture.

 
1. Teku Thapathali Research Group Report, pg. no. 7.
2. Ibid.
3. Ibid, Annex - 5, pg. no. 1.
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The importance of Bagmati was realised by the people from the very beginning of civilisation. Bagmati provided water to drink, Cultivate the land, to support the cattle as such Bagmati became something like the mother of Nepalese civilisation . Many inscriptions of ancient and Medieval Nepal have praised the holy river. Up to the middle of the eighteenth century the main town of Kathmandu was from Thanhiti, the upper end of the town and Konhiti, the lower end of the town. From Thanhiti of north to the Konhiti of south the whole town planning was designed in such a way that the people would reach to the river either Bagmati or Vishnumati within a short walk.


The banks of the rivers are paved by stone slabs on either side and is known as Ghat. Not only did the people cremate their dead here, but they also wanted to die at the bank of the river. All the sacraments from birth to death, the daily and ritual bathing take place here in the Bagmati River. Thus many cultural sites have been developed at the banks of this river.

A Tour of the Bagmati river offers so many aspects of Nepalese culture. It takes about 4 hours to complete this tour of Bagmati Ghat and the writer of these lines is sure of every body's satisfaction.

This is a tour which starts from the famous Bagmati Bridge that separates Patan District from Kathmandu. Right at the beginning of the bridge there is an inscription of Bhimsen Thapa, the prime - Minister of Nepal during the first quarter of nineteenth century. The inscription is a beautiful piece of literature which, in sixteen verses praises the glory of river Bagmati, that proves that the Nepalese people were aware of the environment and even pollution about two hundred years ago. A pillar supports a gold guilt lion standing on three legs and one paw raised. This symbol is found in Nepal from the second half of the fifth century of Christian era. A little below the Ghat are many Hindu Mathas like Sanyasi, Udasi and Vairagi Akhadas belonging to the various sects or schools of Hinduism. These mathas have big open courtyards and buildings on all three sides where pilgrims, both from Nepal and India, came during their journey and stay. The chief priest or master of the mathas known as Mahanta is supposed to take care of their food and shelter. In every mathas there are cows so that the daily worship of the god can be done and the visitors are provided with Dairy products.

Walking towards the west after five such mathas we reach the famous Hiranya Hem Narayan temple with buildings having well carved windows, a big courtyard and many miniature temples surrounding the big temple of Hiranya Hem Narayan. On the east side of the temple a tall stone pillar supports the beautiful statue of Jung Bahadur Rana, the first Rana Prime-Minister of Nepal. This temple built in 1868 is a beautiful example of Mugal influence that was being introduced into the Kathmandu valley with the arrival of the Ranas. Having completed this temple, Junga Bahadur Rana constructed the three Maths. They are still in constant use, and are dedicated to the following school of Hinduism. Bairagi Akhada serving the transient Vaishnavite (followers of Vishnu); the Udasi Akhada, used by the followers of God Nanak; and Dasnami Akhada where the Shaivite pilgrims stay especial during the Shivaratri festival. This temple, on its four corners , has four beautiful lions which are all different. According to the Vamsavali of Daniel Wright these lions were lying at Tundikhel and Jung Bahadur Rana, fixed them at the newly built Temple.

Through the western gate of this temple one reaches an open paved square, where the ascetics (sadhus) visiting Nepal in Sivaratri gather and receive an official farewell from Guthisansthan. This is the confluence of Ichhumati River and Bagmati. A small walk from here leads the visitors to the eastern gate of Tripureswor Mahadev Temple (Shiva). Though not very old this temple (built 1818 A.D.), is an unique example of ancient medieval Hindu temple architecture. The inscription of bell also support it4 . Ronald M. Bernier has written that it was built in the 19th century in honour of Shri Janga Bahadur Rana, Prime Minister of Nepal from 1846 - 1877 A. D. by his wife5 . Which is unjustifiable and untrue. According to inscription of the stone pillar of gold gilded bull behind the temple6 . The ritual stone (foundation) was laid in 1817 A.D. the Shiva Linga was in stalled in 1818 A.D., the Sattals, garden bell and stairs to Bagmati were built in 1820 A.D. and middle roof was gold gilded in 1822 A.D. This temple is constructed in Newar style (pagoda) which has three storey. The upper two roof are gold gilded with curved corner and decorated with metal birds. But the lower one has traditional tile (Jhingati) roof. The square sanctum has three full size wooden door in all four directions. It is built on brick plinth in five stages. The wooden frames are beautifully carved. Each door frame has four stone lions on the base as if bearing the loads of the temples. There is another sanctum inside the temple forming circumanibulation between the two sanctum. This temple is built on the conceptions of Panchayan. These temple have two storey with Jhingati roofs and gold gilded pinnacles and are made of traditional type of brick (Dachi Appa) with mud mortar and wood. All the window, struts and cornices of these temples are beautifully carved7 . The lower section of the temple is formed with doorways leading into a circumanibulation enclosing the inner sanctum were the Lingam is housed. The sanctum is accessible through a set of triple doorways on all four sides. The lowest roof is supported by timber Musi (rafters) and 20 carved Tunasi (struts) which describe the main characters of the Mahabharat epic. The twenty Tunasi of the second roof reveal the life of Krishna while the twelve Tunasi at the third level depict the Matrika Goddesses in different aspect. These twos supper roofs are covered with gilded copper sheets8 . All these roof have wind bells. This is the chief feature of Nepalese architecture. These are altogether 28 carved window in the temple. The cornices in

4. Dr. Jagadish Chandra Regmi, Shahakalin Kala Ra Bastukala, pg. no. 189.
5. Ronald M. Barnier, The Temples of Nepal, pg. no. 138.
6. Itihas Sanshodhanko Prman Prameya, Sanshodhan Mandal, pg. no. 210/213.
7. Prakash Darnal, Teku Thapathali Research, Group Report, Annex - 6, pg. no. 1.
8. Teku Thapathali Research Group Report, pg. no. 22.
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each storey are equal decorative. It is constructed with traditional materials like Dachii Appa (kind of brick) with mud mortar and wood. The five gold gilded pinnacles and triangular umbrella support on top of the roof has made it more attractive. The courtyard of the temple is paved by Teliya brick. On the south there is a bronze statue of Queen Tripura Sundari sitting with folded hand (Angalimudra) on a stone pillar which is erected on the base of big stone tortoise. The statue is covered by a seven head snake. The inscription inscribed on it says that after the death of Lalita Tripura Sundari in 1831 A.D. King Rajendra had installed it is 1837 A.D. There is Chaugher Sattal around the temple. These Sattals have carved wooden window, pillars and doorways. The Sattals have tile roofs and built by Dachhi Appa, mud and wood. All four direction of Sattals have entrance. The contemporary court poet Pandit Sundarananda Bada has also explained about this temple in his book, "Tri-Ratna Saundarya Gatha". The temple complex is run by Raja Guthi under Guthi Sansthan. According to copper plate inscription of 1806 A.D. it has 781 ropanis of land for the worshipping and maintenance of the temple. Another copper plate inscription of 1820 A.D. describes about the Sadavarta (alms). Bhatta Brahmins are working as the main priest of the temple for many generations. From the Lamohar 1820 A.D. the number of the people are working Bhatta Brahmits, two assistant Brahmins, two Bhadel and Jaisi one each, Bhandara and Tahaluwa one each, Kusle, Damai, etc. for the ritual worship of the temple. The main religious activities celebrated here are as follows (Mandakini, DOA):

a) Daily worship in the morning by the main priest (Bhatta) and Arati Puja in the evening and worship of the deities outside the temple by the assistant priest (Lalmohar 1820 A.D.)
b) The daily offering of two Mana (1 kg.) rice.
c) Barsha Bandan Puja (construction day) each year in the month of Baishakh.
d) Offering of Satu and Sarbat in Akshya Tritiya day of Baishaka.
e) Worship of holy ascent on Sravan Sukla Chaturdasi.
f) Teej Puja in Bhadra Sudi Tritiya.
g) Jamara in Aswin Naba Ratri.
h) Akash Deep from Aswin Sudi 15 to Kartic Sudi full moon.
i) Bathing ceremony (Mahasnan) in Kartic Sudi 15 {the flat stone in south of the temple where 10 Path (40kg). Rice is offered}.
j) Bathing Shiva Linga with hot water from Mangsir.
k) Shiva Ratri Puja in Falgun Krishna Chaturdasi.
l) Puja of suppression in Chaitra.
m) Every month of Chaturdasi two days and Trayodasi two days there is worship known as Pradosh Puja. The Damai should play Damaha (Drum) at 4 O'clock in the morning to awaken Siva (Lalmohar 1820 A.D.)9 People who had nothing to eat and no place to stay used to visit this place and get satisfied with lodging and fooding provided by the Guthi. The Benevolent Society Trust used to give shelter to orphan children at this Sattal since 1813 A.D. for a long time10 . Letter on they were shifted to Bal Mandir (Social welfare)11 . Earthquake 1934 A.D. and was restored in 1936 A.D. According to Dev Malla Vamsavali the three roofs are made of copper and gold gilded. Four small miniature temples and the four corners of the plinth houses the beautiful statues of Ganesh, Durga, Surya and Vishnu. The whole courtyard has over twenty-four statues of Hindu vedic and pauranic deities placed in the right directions. Among the statues are Trisira, a god representing the fever and Varuna, the water Gods are worth seeing. The Sivalinga on the sanctum is big and is placed on a big monolithic pedestal. To the south a tall stone pillar supported by a turtle has a gold statue of queen Tripurasundari Devi on Angalimundra, that is her hands folded in Angali. This is the most beautiful metal statue of Kathmandu valley and the west has an attractive Nandin, the bull. The whole temple and its courtyard is surrounded by two storied buildings . The ground floor is open and is used for religious ceremonies. Because of ignorance many people have raised a wall on the ground floor. The four entrances of the temple from all sides are now encroached and are not properly taken care of.

Descending down to the Ghat from the southern entrance we reach another Ghat, where one can see many Brahmanals(a sloped stone slab), patis(public rest house), statues of various gods and goddesses of both Hinduism and Buddhism.

A little walk towards the west will take us to the old buildings, Dharmasala (public rest house), which were built by prime - Minister Juddha Sumsheer Janga Bahadur Rana. On a walk following the paved Ghats many statues of Umamaheswor, Vishnu can be seen on the right side. Then comes the famous Purohit Ghat built by Pandit Shiva Raj Satyal. Not only did he built the Ghat but also raised a beautiful house with garden and a well for drinking water. This house today is the personal property of the Satyal of Gairidhara and Baneswor. It has beautiful carved windows, inner courtyards, many miniature Shiva Temples, big bronze bells and a pool with a fountain and aquatic plants. The owners come only once a year to perform certain family worship. Since it is ignored nowadays the beautiful carvings and statues are destroyed by white ants. The concerning authorities and the owners should find a way to preserve this wonderful cultural heritage of Nepal.

A short walk following the same paved Ghat on its right has a beautiful and very well preserved temple of Rama built by the Bam Bahadur Kunwar (1850 A.D.). The statues are from India; however, it is placed and decorated in a Nepalese style. The whole temple sanctum and steps are paved with marble and facing west is an attractive large Hanuman which guards this temple. A little further from this place to the right of the Ghat is the most beautiful temple square known as Bombirebakateswar Mahadev Mandir (Tin Dewal). The path leading to this Tin Dewal temple has many temples of different sizes and shapes. They house the famous four- pilgrimage centre of the Hindus like Badarinatha, Rameswor, Dwaraka and Jagannath. The Tin Dewal, meaning three temples, are made of brick in sikhar style. Among the three, the middle one is the tallest. The whole square is surrounded by two storied buildings. And the north side has many statues as well as inscriptions. The temple is facing south. It has brick plinth in three levels. It is a Shikhar tower which are joined by a single sanctum. The sanctum has 24 wooden columned around it making a porch in between. In the southern side four original column have been replaced by plastered masonry pillars.

 
9. Prakash Darnal, Teku Thapathali Research, Group Report, Annex - 6, pg. no. 1.
10. Rolamba, vol. no. 1, Joshi Research Institute, pg. no. 7.
11. Prakash Darnal, Teku Thapathali Research, Group Report, Annex - 6, pg. no. 1.
 
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The roofs of the porch was originally constructed with Jhingati but it has been replaced by corrugated iron sheet after 1934 earthquake. The sanctum has eight doorways, three each in north and south, one each in east and west. Every wooden column is supported by stone lion. There are various type of bricks in the plinth. Small Shrines of Vishnu, there Ganesh and Bhagwati are on the four corner of the temple. The courtyard of the temple is paved by stone. There are two bronze bells on both sides of the southern stairs. The stone bull is on the western side of temple. On the northern side, these are Shiva temple with inscription of 1922 A.D. Trident, three Shivalaya with inscription of 1950 A.D. The two Shivalaya and another Shivalaya with inscription of 1942 A.D. Near to this Shivalaya, there are three Chhatra Chandeshwor statue on stone facing west12 . Within the temple courtyard there are four other small shrines completing the Panchayan Pantheon. These shrines are dedicated to Vishnu (north-east), Surya (south-east), Ganesh (south-west) and Durga (north-west). Daily Nityapuja (morning prayers) and Aratipuja (evening prayers) performed by one of six priests on duty. A statue of Shiva in the north-east corner is ritually washed and dried at this time. Four times a year the temple Barsha Bandhan (consecration day) are recognised and all priests have to be present on the following day. Sripanchami and Suklasaptami during the month of January - February; Suklapanchami in February-March and on Trititya in September-October. During the festival of Shivaratri in February- March followers of Shiva are welcomed to the temple and fed hot meal provided with firewood. During Krishnastami in the month of August-September pilgrims and the poor visit the temple and receive food. Krishna is worshipped in the adjacent Jagannath Shrine accompanied by special Puja and Bhajan dedicated to Lord Krishna. The temple received the Lingam pole after its ritual use during the annual Indra Jatra festival in Kathmandu. This custom began in 1910 A. D. and provides timber to undertake maintenance and repairs in the temple complex13 .

This temple is constructed on three diminishing platforms. An arcade is formed by twenty four supports. Each support is made up cluster of four pillars set on monolithic bases and carrying decorative capitals. The arcade surrounds a single sanctum in which the three Shiva Lingam are housed, each placed below one of the three Sikharas. Access to the sanctum is gained through eight different doors one on both of the narrow sides facing east and west, three each on the north and south sides. The eight gates are similar design, following the style of the late Malla period. The temple sanctum is faced with Do-appa (special bricks) and finished with a horizontal decorative string course of entwined snakes encircling the sanctum. The skirt roof structure over the arcade, is supported off short Tunasi and was originally covered in the traditional Jhingati tiles. Today the roof is covered in crude tin sheeting. Rising above this roof a moulded terracotta platform cradle the base of three towering Shikharas. The large central tower dominates the other two and is surrounded by four shrines aligned to the cardinal points, each of which are capped with a bell shaped Gajur. The curvilinear spires are capped with a bell-shaped dome, a crown of lotus buds and finials of gilded metal repose work, to create a magnificent composite Gajura (pinnacle)14 . The temple complex is surrounded by Chaughera Sattal. The temple courtyard is accessible from south and the west of Chaughara Sattal. The temple and Sattal are made of Dachi Appa with mud mortar and timber. The roof of the Sattals have tiles whereas, the three Shikharas have gold gilded reposes' pinnacles on the top. There are stone sculptures around each Shikhara. The central Shikhara dominates the other two Shikharas. The magnificently carve struts and the doors, windows and pillars have added beauty to the temple and Sattal. During - the festival of Pachali Bhairava thousands of jars of rice beer are stored here. To the Northeast corner of this temple there is a beautiful statue of Kamadeva, the Eros.

The wooden struts of the buildings around the temple are the most beautiful examples of the nineteenth century wood works. This temple has two main entrances: one from the Ghat itself and the other on the western side. The entrance of western side, now in a dilapidated condition, has been renovated after the great earthquake of 1934 Christian era.

The next attraction of this tour is the Laxmikameswor Shiva temple with very symbolic and erotic carvings all around. About the temple there is one important information. The information of the Laxmishwor is already published in the Journal Purnima written by Nayanath Paudel15 . The temple is named after Laxmidevi, the concubine of King Rana Bahadur Shaha. That's why it is renowned as Laxmishwor Mahadev Mandir. The Laxmishwor temple is situated on the right hand side when we go from the Pachli temple to the Pachali Ghat. The Laxmishwor Mahadev temple was founded by Laxmidevi, the daughter of Ganesh Dutta Baudhidha in 1813 A.D. She was formerly a concubine of King Rana Bahadur Shaha (1777 - 99 A.D.). But later given a title of Nanisaheb in 1814 A.D. Laxmidevi commissioned the building of the Sattal enclosing the courtyard and temple. According to an inscription 15 people were given the task of maintaining the temple and compound. They were named as a priest, a trustee, a sweeper, a guard, a gardener, and two caretakers. Seven Kusle (lower cast musician) and one Damai (drummer) were employed to play music during the daily worship. In the temple is dedicated to Shiva and associated symbols such as the vehicle Nandi (bull), the trisul (trident) and the Lingam (phallus) can be found in the courtyard surrounding the main temple16 . "Each day the priest performs morning and evening puja. The special annual worship of Barsha Bandhan for the temples foundation day is celebrated every year with a special puja between February and March. There is the ritual offering of water to the central image of Shiva Lingam in the month of Baishakha (April/May) and Jestha (May/June). In the month of Kartik (October/November) the lighting of lamps around the temple extends for one month. Starting from the month of Ashad (June/July), the Rudri puja (special worship) of Shiva takes place for four months. There is also the ritual and practice of painting the inside of the Sattal with lime; this takes place once a year. On the national annual festivals the Shivaratri puja is performed here in the month of Falgun (February/March)17 ".

Laxmishwor temple was considered one of the best example of temple architecture from Shah dynasty. The cardinally arranged of square ground plan is designed upon a two tiered stone platform and placed centrally in a tiled courtyard. The enclosed square sanctum which houses a sacred Shiva Lingam is surrounded by a circumambulatory

12. Ibid, Annex - 6, pg. no. 4.
13. Teku Thapathali Research Group Report, pg. no. 53.
14. Ibid, pg. no. 55.
15. Nayanath Paudel, Purnima, pg. no. 55/56.
16. Teku Thapathali Research Group Report, pg. no. 31.
17. Ibid, pg. no. 33.
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the three Shikharas have gold gilded reposes' pinnacles on the top. There are stone sculptures around each Shikhara. The central Shikhara dominates the other two Shikharas. The magnificently carve struts and the doors, windows and pillars have added beauty to the temple and Sattal. During - the festival of Pachali Bhairava thousands of jars of rice beer are stored here. To the Northeast corner of this temple there is a beautiful statue of Kamadeva, the Eros.

The wooden struts of the buildings around the temple are the most beautiful examples of the nineteenth century wood works. This temple has two main entrances: one from the Ghat itself and the other on the western side. The entrance of western side, now in a dilapidated condition, has been renovated after the great earthquake of 1934 Christian era.

The next attraction of this tour is the Laxmikameswor Shiva temple with very symbolic and erotic carvings all around. About the temple there is one important information. The information of the Laxmishwor is already published in the Journal Purnima written by Nayanath Paudel . The temple is named after Laxmidevi, the concubine of King Rana Bahadur Shaha. That's why it is renowned as Laxmishwor Mahadev Mandir. The Laxmishwor temple is situated on the right hand side when we go from the Pachli temple to the Pachali Ghat. The Laxmishwor Mahadev temple was founded by Laxmidevi, the daughter of Ganesh Dutta Baudhidha in 1813 A.D. She was formerly a concubine of King Rana Bahadur Shaha (1777 - 99 A.D.). But later given a title of Nanisaheb in 1814 A.D. Laxmidevi commissioned the building of the Sattal enclosing the courtyard and temple. According to an inscription 15 people were given the task of maintaining the temple and compound. They were named as a priest, a trustee, a sweeper, a guard, a gardener, and two caretakers. Seven Kusle (lower cast musician) and one Damai (drummer) were employed to play music during the daily worship. In the temple is dedicated to Shiva and associated symbols such as the vehicle Nandi (bull), the trisul (trident) and the Lingam (phallus) can be found in the courtyard surrounding the main temple . "Each day the priest performs morning and evening puja. The special annual worship of Barsha Bandhan for the temples foundation day is celebrated every year with a special puja between February and March. There is the ritual offering of water to the central image of Shiva Lingam in the month of Baishakha (April/May) and Jestha (May/June). In the month of Kartik (October/November) the lighting of lamps around the temple extends for one month. Starting from the month of Ashad (June/July), the Rudri puja (special worship) of Shiva takes place for four months. There is also the ritual and practice of painting the inside of the Sattal with lime; this takes place once a year. On the national annual festivals the Shivaratri puja is performed here in the month of Falgun (February/March) ".

Laxmishwor temple was considered one of the best example of temple architecture from Shah dynasty. The cardinally arranged of square ground plan is designed upon a two tiered stone platform and placed centrally in a tiled courtyard. The enclosed square sanctum which houses a sacred Shiva Lingam is surrounded by a circumambulatory path formed by twenty carved wooden pillars, each pillar seated on a stone, carved winged lion. The inner sanctum is accessible from all four sides through intricately carved doors and frames. The brick enclosing structure rises beyond the ceiling over the sanctum to carry the structure of the topmost roof. .All the roofs are covered with Jhingat tiles set in a clay bed. The lower roof is supported by twenty eight carved tunasi (stuffs) depicting the various incarnations of Shiva and Vishnu. The lower section of the tunasi demonstrates exquisitely carved and unusually erotic carvings. The spaces between the struts of the first roof are enclosed with delicately carved timber tikke Jyal (lattice screens. The upper two roofs are of decreasing size and proportion, and are constructed, as the lower roof, with musi (rafters) and phalek (rough caught wooden plank) over which a clay bed is placed to carry the Jhiganti. The second roof is supported by twenty four tunasi with window on each facade. The topmost roof has twelve struts with a similar window placement. Each of tunasi of the temples is supported at the brick wall by an exaggerated terracotta cornice. The third roof is capped by a moulded stucco platform on which is set a copper gilded gajur (bell shaped dome) with a gilded chatta (finial)18 . She had founded a trust for daily worshipped and maintenance of the temple, the sattals and Ghats. For this she had donated one hundred Ropani of Land in Lubhu and Thimi19. It has the most beautiful windows. Although this temple is falling apart the concerned authorities have shown no concern. Thus this heritage can soon collapse.

The Ghatas now have some nice statues of Hindu and Buddhist Gods. The dancing Ganesha, the Harihara, Ganga and Jamuna are the highlights of this place. Besides these wonderful art works the ten incarnations of Vishnu, the Navadurgas, with caption and Krishna dancing along with Gopis represent the stone art of the nineteenth century Christian era. Many statues of Kedarnath, Rameswor, Jagannath and Dwarika are placed on four sides of the temple and the middle has a place called Tulasikomath, a place to plant the holy basil.

A statue of Ekadas Lokeswor with thousand arms carved on sandstone is also found next to the Hindu statues. We can not describe all the temples, as the volume would not allow ,as such we have to describe only the selective pieces. On the right of the Ghat all the way up to the confluence of the Bagmati and Vishnumati there are buildings, patis and Dharmasalas. On the way , a beautiful statue of Surya(Sun) that can be from the Lichhchavi period is just lying ignored.

From this point the cremation is allowed and we have many crematoriums and finally reach to the confluence of river Bagmati and Vishnumati where people come to perform the ancestors worship, to purify their body after Asaucha of birth and death. These places have votive stupas with beautiful carvings of the Jataka stories.

Jagannath temple is located in the west from Pachali temple. It is also one of the largest temple complex in the Bagmati area. According to the inscription of Jagannath temple, it was built by Bhav Singh a resident of Makhan tole in 1792 A.D. He was well known devotee of the god Jagannath and legend has it that he was inspired at Varanasi to donate a temple to this deity. The legend also informs us that certain mysterious phenomena were connected with the foundation of this temple. The donor discovered two spring in accordance with dream, one producing milk and one blood. The Shrine of Jagannath was erected on the spring of milk, and a sanctuary to the goddess Guhyesvari over the Spring blood. This temple is dedicated to a trinity of Jagannath, his brother Balarama and his sister Subhadra. Jagannath, also known as 'Lord of the world', is a form of the god Krishna. The images are sculpted in a black stone and were installed at the end of the 19th century20 . The Jagannath Temple can be singled out as one of the most significant and unique temple structures to be built during the early Shah period. It appears that the donor must have encouraged his craftsmen to use their imagination to compose a building of selective elements from traditional Newar architecture and North Indian Sikhara forms. The composition unite the Octagon and the Square as the leading geometry for the ground plan and combines the Sikhara with the arcade style, structural components and materials of the traditional Nepali multi-tiered temple. The Sikhara tower is surrounded by an octagonal arcade set on two receding platforms which are inlayed with terracotta strips. The construction is skill fully executed as the plan is transformed from being an eight sided circumambulatory to a four sided Sikhara tower. The arcade consists of 28 carved pillars, each with a sub-capital and capital carrying in lintel. Above this these is a carved, moulded cornice and an attic wall decorated with small window. The skirt roof follows the traditional design and construction with overhanging caves, supported by twenty carved wooden struts above the posts and sixteen corner struts. Originally the roof, which today is covered with tin sheets was covered with jhingati tiles bedded in clay. The Junction of the roof with the base of the Sikhara is projected with a heavy stucco cornice forming a heavy plinth from which rise four imposing and finely carved bay window exhibiting excellent workmanship. The central circular opening of these window frame the stone images of Vishnu and his Avataras. Following the typical Sikhara profile, the brick core rises above to support two heavy cornices of terracotta and a plastered bell-shaped gajur which is interrupted by two rings of lotus buds. A stone shaped Kalash (pot) over the dome supports a gilded Chakra (disc)21 . The courtyard of the temple is paved by Teliya tile. There is a stone sculpture of Garuda, the vehicle of Vishnu, in front of the temple. Besides the Garuda, we see through possible belonging to a water reservoir because there is a sculpture of Bhagirath on the Southern facade towards the road. Below the Garuda socle, these are two stone sculpture of Tadhiju, Shivalaxmi and Nandlal, Bhav Sing, Bansana and Mahela with inscription 1792 A.D. Three Shiva Linga one stone bull and two trees of Bar and Pipal (ficus religiosa) are in the north east corner. The east and south sides of the temple are closed by brick wall. The temple is accessible only from eastern and southern gates. Both gate have stone disc flanked by a pair of deer on the top. Between the two gates the statues of Shiva, Parvati, Swaraswati and Hanuman are fixed in the boundary wall and two big stone lions are kept in the eastern gate as Dwarpalas (gate keepers). Behind the western Sattal there is a shine of Guheswari. The deity is represented by a stone Kalasha flanked by two sculptures of Kumar and Ganesh. Now the Ganesh is stolen. In front of the Sattal of western side, there is a shrine dedicated to Narsingh with the idol of Goddess can be seen. The temple has sattals on its west and north. Besides, there are sattals toward the road side in south, west and north. The temple and sattals are made of traditional Dachhi Appa with mud mortar and wood. The carved window in which the Krishna is playing flute while riding on the Shoulders of beautiful Gopinis, is an unique one. The pillar and other windows are also beautifully carved. The pillars and other windows are also beautifully carved. Unfortunately the southern part of the sattal has already collapsed. There is a bell in north which has inscription of 1889A.D.

18. Ibid.
19. Prakash Darnal, Teku Thapathali Research, Group Report, Annex - 6, pg. no. 2.
20. Teku Thapathali Research Group Report, pg. no. 43.
21. Ibid, pg. no. 45
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Religious Activities

a. Daily Nitya Puja in the morning and Arati Puja in the evening by the priest.
b. There is a kitchen garden and pond in the north side for the flowers and water to the temple.
c. To celebrate the Barshabandhan (consecration) Puja in every seventh day of Jestha Sudi (in June).
d. Shiva Ratri festival.
e. Worship of Pachali Bhairav, Ganesh and Bhawani.
f. The most significant even is the celebration of Krishna Astami. On this day the family of Bhav Singh Pradhan comes to this temple to perform Puja. The procession starts with palanquin (Khata Goitre) from the southern gate of the temple to Hyumatya Tole. Kwa Hiti, Bhimsensthan, Maru Ganesh, Naradevi, Bangemuda, Ason Tole, Makhan Tole, Hanumandhoka, Jaisi Dewal, Hyumata Tole and Teku. Then the procession ends even it enters from the eastern gate.

For the Puja and maintenance of the temple the priest, helper, keeper, patwari (collector of land revenue), kusle, damai and sweeper are employed by the trust. The earthquake of 1934 A.D. had slightly damaged the temple but the surrounding sattals were severely damaged, especially the northern wing was completely destroyed .22

According to Vasha Vamsali tenth century A.d. King Guna Kama Dev was instructed by the goddess Maha Lakshmi to build city at the confluence of the Bagmati and Vishnumati rivers23 . Shrines dedicated to Ganesh, the Astamatrikas and to the Panchalingeshwar Bhairab-which later became known as the Pachali Bhairab were erected to protect this city.
The open Shrine consisting of a small stone dedicated to Bhairab is set under a magnificent pipal (ficus religiosa) tree. Its foundation date is uncertain but of the many inscriptions associated with he shrine the earliest dates from 1682 AD. During the major Dasain Festival in Kartik (October-November) the Pachali Bhairab Jatra takes place, at which time a palanquin is carried from Bhimsensthan on a special route to the Hanuman Dhoka and back forming an interesting link between the Pachali Bhairab shrine and the old palace in Kathmandu. Around the shrine are many small patis which are in constant by pilgrims, worshippers and even weddings - Pachali Bhairab is a popular place for marriage solemnisation. Another interesting activity is that every 12 years a dance drama telling the story of Pachhali Bhairab is enacted at which time the image of Bhairab and the reigning monarch ritually exchange ceremonial swords24.

The Panchali Bhairava has a small Shrine of Nasadyo, the master of dance and music to the east of this shrine under a big tree in the famous shrine of Bhairava . The site is a combination of both nature and culture. A big brass vessel lying with its head towards north and below the tree the statue of Bhairava provides a glimpse of Nepalese culture that flourished in nature.

Kathmandu has thousand of attractions that attract the touristic from all over the world. Hundreds of such places have not been properly studied and brought to then notice of international market. If we can develop those place and include on tourist itinerary the stay of the tourists in Kathmandu will be increased. Presently the popular sight seeing areas in around Kathmandu are stabilised and marketed three decades ago. As a student of Nepalese culture I have now studied some place inside Kathmandu valley where the tourists would enjoy the sight, its landscape, culture, architecture and religious practices. An ever- going fire is burning full of stories as manifested by these archaeological facts and artwork.

22. Prakash Darnal, Teku Thapathali Research, Group Report, Annex - 6, pg. no. 3
23. Bibliographer Shankar Nath Adhikari, Vasha Vamsavali part II pg. no. 22
24. Teku Thapathali Research Group Report, pg. no. 8.
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REFERENCES

Adhikari, Shankar Nath (Biblographer ). (2023 B.S.). Vassha Vamsavali. Kathmandu: Department of Archaeology, Nepal National Library.

Bernier, Ronald M. (1978). The Temples of Nepal. New Delhi: S. Chand & Company Ltd.

Joshi Research Institute. (1991). Rolamba vol no. 1. Lalitpur: Author.

Paudel Nayanath. (2022 B.S.). Purnima, vol, 6, year 2, no. 2. Kathmandu: Sanshadhan Mandal, Mahabaudha.

Regmi, Dr. Jagadis Chandra. (2033 B.S.). Shahakalin Kala Ra Bastukala. Kathmandu: Sajha Prakashan.

Report: The Teku Thapahali Research Group. (1994). Collaboration with John Sanday Consultants Pvt Ltd.(JSC).

Sanshodhan Mandal. (2019 B.S.). Itihas Sanshodhan ko Praman Pramaya. Kathmandu: Author.

 
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Nepalese Culture, Society and Tourism
By: Diwas Dhakal

This book is a collection
of essays devoted to the
Nepalese Culture,Society and Tourism. A special
stress on Natural and
cultural Heritage of Nepal has been very carefully emphasised.
Diwas Dhakal, 2000 ISBN 99933-570-0-6,
First Edition 2000
Published by:
Mukta Dhakl
Read more
Contents:

Tourism in Nepal: A Critical Analysis

Ghandruk: A Socio-cultural Study

The Aqua Culture of Kathmandu

People, Nature and Wild Life in Makalu - Barun

Purnachandi Bhuja Jatra of Patan: A Protection from Lightening

Vajrayan Buddhism and Nepal

The Accumulate Stupa of Ramagrama

The Stupa of Boudhnath: A World Heritage Site

Pagoda Style Architecture and Nepal

Development of Architecture in Nepal

 
 
 
 
 
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