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Kali (The Benevolent Goddess)
Diwas Dhakal#
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O MOTHER! HOW SHALL I CALL THEE?
SOMETIMES THOU SITTEST ON SHIVA'S LEFT
AND SOMETIMES THOU STANDEST ON SHIVA’S CHEST.
SOMETIMES THOU ART IN COSMIC FORM
AND SOMETIMES THOU ART A NUDE WOMAN;
AND SOMETIMES THOU KRISHNA FALLEN AT RADHA'S FEET.
SOMETIMES THOU ART MOTHER OF THE UNIVERSE
DWELLING IN THE FIVE ELEMENTS;
SOMETIMES THOU ART KULAKUNDALINI ON THE FOUR FETALLED LOTUS.
PRASADA SAYS, "I SHALL LISTEN TO NONE.”
THE NAME "MOTHER” IS PEERLESS.
THEREFORE, MOTHER, I CALL THEE “MOTHER” TO GET THY SECURE FEET.

- DR. JADUNATH SINHA
 
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It has already been proved that the evolution of Mother Worship in India begins from the age of the Indus Valley Civilization of Mohenjo -daro and Harappa and has continued to present. The two opposite forces of nature- the male and female are depicted by the Linga (the male symbol) and Yoni (the female symbol). This depictation of Shiva Shakti by the Linga- Yoni is a popular religious practice in Hindu socio religious culture. In the Tantric literature (both Hindu and Buddhist) the Lord (Bhagawan, the male deity) is symbolically depicted by a white dot ( Shwetabindu), thus suggesting the likeness of semen, while the creatrix (Bhagavati, the female deity) is represented by a red dot (Shonabindu), to suggest the analogy with the menstrual blood contained in the ovum1 . Sir John Marshall mentions that the religion of the Indus civilization was able to propose certain basic elements. He concludes that the great numbers of female terracotta figurines were the representation of the Great Mother Goddess; and he rightly draws parallels between this evidence and the Ubiquitous cult of Goddesses, particularly that of Parvati consort of Shiva, throughout modern India both in literature and practice. The vertical stones identical to the Lingam, the phallic emblem of Shiva, are found in the cities2 . These discoveries of Indus Valley prove that the worship of Mother Goddess can be traced can be traced back to the pre-Vedic period.

Mahakal Samhita narrates an interesting episode on the origin of Dash Mahabidhya (the Goddess representing the ten transcendental knowledge)3 . Daksha Prajapati did not invite his daughter Sati and her husband Shiva when he performed a Yagya (ritual

 

# Central Department of Nepalese History, Culture and Archeology, Tribhuvan University, Kritipur
1. Elizabeth U Harding, Kali, p.27.
2. Bridget and Raymond Allehin, The Rise of Civilization in India and Pakistan, p.p. 213-214.
3. Shree Yaspalji, Dash Mahabidhya, p. 3.

 
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ceremony). Sati though humiliated decided to attend and requested Shiva to attend Daksha’s Yagya ceremony. Lord Shiva refused her request. Sati tried her best to convince
Shiva but failed. She also wasn’t permitted to visit there. Sati at this denial became so furious and appeared as Dash Mahabidhyas in the forms of Kali, Tara, Shodashi, Bhuwaneswori, Bhairavi, Chhinnamasta, Dhumawati, Bagala, Matangi and Kamala on all ten directions. When Lord Shiva saw such forms of Sati, he requested her to interpret its mystery. Sati explained and said, “Allow me to go to the Yagya so that I will be able to attent it otherwise I will destroy the Yagya”. At last, Shiva allowed her to go to the Yagya4 . Upon Sati’s insistence to attend the sacrifice, Shiva gave up and asked the Nandi, his vehicle to take Sati to her father’s residence. Upon arrival, Sati was glad to see her father after such a long period. She was about to grasp him, but he pushed her away. “Why did you come here? A bummer’s wife!” shouted Daksha. He then proceeded to slander Shiva, which was unbearable to her. And decided to give up her life. All color drained from her body and she fell dead at Daksha’s feet. The accompanying Nandi sadly returned to Kailash and informed Shiva about the sad incident. Shiva in grief and anger shook his matted locks and out of them leapt a whole arm of giants, snakes and ghosts. They turned Daksha’s palace to cinders in no time. Meanwhile, Shiva picked up the dead body of Sati and while carrying it upon his shoulders, he began the fearful dance of destruction. The dance shook the world, causing earthquakes and tidal waves that menaced all. For the shake of mankind, Vishnu hurled his discus again and again at Sati’s corpse until her body fell to the earth, piece by piece and it is said that all together. It took fifty-one throws to destroy Sati’s body. As soon as Shiva felt her weight gone, he returned to Kailash and confined himself in solitary meditation. He became so absorbed that the Divine Mother, reborn as Uma, had difficulty in seducing him to forget Sati and marry her, went on noticed by him5 .

From the places where the fragments of Sati’s body had fallen sprouted sacred Shakti pithas. Ancient temples stand on these spots. Sati’s toes fell at kalighat in south Kolkata, and she is still worshipped there as Mother Kalika. The gem of Sati’s earring fell on Manikarnikaghat in Baneres. Sati’s right and left breast fell at Jalandhara and Ramagirishe is worshipped their as Tripuramalini. Sati’s Yoni fell at Kamakhya in Assam. This temple is one of the most famous temples dedicated to Mother worshipped and specially associated with disciplines practiced according to Tantra. It houses the Mother’s image in the form of a Yoni shaped (a symbolic representation) cleft in a rock that hides a natural spring, keeping the cleft moist. Tantrics say that the earth’s menstruation takes place their in the Hindu month of Asar (July/August)6 . during the dark night of the moon (Ambuvacti) in Asar, after the first burst of the monsoon, a great ceremony takes place there, for the water runs red with iron-oxide, and the ritual drink is symbolic to that of the Rajas(King) or Ritu of the Devi, her menstrual blood7.

As it’s already been mentioned earlier, when Sati was denied permission from Shiva to attend the Yagya been performed by her father Daksha, she showed herself to him ten and Kamala. The method of worshipping and the forms of Dash Mahavidya are as follows. The black Kali is the embodiment of time the primordial energy. She stands on a corpse; the toothy Goddess Kali seems to be frightful and delighted. Her four hands have Skull, Varad Mudra (hand conferring grace or boon), sword, and Abhay Mudra (protect in gesture), and on her neck she wears a garland of recently chopped, blood dripping heads of those she killed. Her tongue is red. Tara of

 
4. Ibid, p. 11.
5. Elizabeth U Harding, Kali, p.p. 27-28.
6. Ibid, p.p. 27-29.
7. Ajit Mookherjee, Kali, the Feminine Force, p. 30.
 
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dark blue color personifies the power of aspiration and spiritual ascent. Forwarding a leg ahead, of Goddess Tara also stands on a corpse. She seems scary yet and has Padma (lotus), sword, skull and sickle. Unique in form, she is short and has blue and yellow Jata (the matted and long hair of an ascetic) adorned with snakes. Shodashi represents perfection. Her face is yellow and looks like the rising Sun. she has four hands and three eyes. On Her hands she carries bow, hook, noose and an arrow. Bhuwaneshwori represents infinite space. She appears in the color of the rising Sun, has a bright crow on the head, happy face, high- breast, her two hands are in Abhaya and Varada Mudra, and has three eyes. She holds hooks and noose of ropes in her hand. Bhuwaneswori nourishes the three worlds with her large breast that ooze milk. Tripurbhairavi is the embodiment of destruction; her complexion is red, and her breasts are besmeared with blood. She looks like a mid day Sun. she is decorated with light rays, garlanded with the head of her enemies and has blood marks on her mouth. She has large breasts, hooks, erudition, Varada Mudra, Abhaya Mudra, three eyes and a smiling face. She is decorated with a bright crown. Chhinnamasta is the end of existence and wears the color of a million rising Suns. She stands in the cremation brown on the copulating bodies of Kama, the God of lust, and his wife Rati. With a foot ahead, she has uncovered and weapons on her hands. Chhinnamasta is shown decapitated, holding her own head while drinking her own blood that streams form her neck. Her head on her left hand with a chaplet of snakes on Her head and garland on Her breast, she stands confidently on the couple enjoy sex. Dhumawati, clad in dirty white clothes, is the night of cosmic slumber. Her hair is disheveled; she has no teeth and her breasts are long and pendulum. She is tall and unstable and is cruel. She rides a chariot that has a crow-marked banner. She has shagging and long breast and trembling hands. She carries a mattock and has cruel eyes and long nose with long Jatas. One hand in Varada Mudra, she suffers from hunger and thirst. Her appearance is frightening and she likes quarrel. Bagalamukhi, who is the embodiment of illusion, has a yellow complexion, and her head resembles that of a crane. She tortures enemies by pulling their tongue with her hand and in the right hand she carries Gada (mace) to destroy the enemy. The devotees have been continuously worshipping pinions Goddess Bagalamukhi decorated in yellow attire. Matangi dispels evil, and the color of her skin is black. She is intoxicated, reels about, and frightfully rolls her eyes. She is dark, three-eyed. She wears moonlike crown and sits on throne made of expensive pearls. She holds sword, Pasa (noose), Gada, hook, Khetaka (a shield it may be circular or rectangular) with her four hands. She enjoys the music produced from a diamond coated fluid. And all offer their worship to the virgin Goddess Matangi. Kamala is beautiful, and her complexion is the color of the lightening. Kamala, who reveals herself in good fortune, is seated on a lotus. She is surrounded by four white elephants who pour pitchers of Amrit (delicious liquid) through Kalas (decorated copper water pot) over her. Kamala has a golden face and holds two lotuses on her two hands. Her two hands are in different Mudras - Abhaya Mudra and Varada Mudra. She wears a bright crown, has beautifully curved buttock and seats on lotus8 .

Aside from the Goddesses depicted in the Dasha Mahavidhya, there are so many other names and forms of the same Divine Mother. In the Devi-kavacha attached to the Chandi, the Mother Goddess as Navadurga is represented as Shailaputri (the daughter of the mountain), Katyayani, Kalaratri, Mahagauri and Siddhidatri9 . Other forms of Kali are Chamundi, Shmshan Kali (Goddesses of cremation ground), Bhadrakali, Ugra chandi, Bhim Chandi, Siddhewsori, and

 
8. Shree Yaspal ji, Dash Mahavidya, p.p. 15-65.
9. Elizabeth U Harding, Kali, p. 30
 
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Sheetala (the Goddess of smallpox). People also worship her to protect their children from dread diseases and their homes against ill omens10 .

Thus, the expanded Shakti worship of the epic and Puranic times was not a little indebted to these Goddesses concepts, the very idea of Shakti being based on the central theme of the Devi-Shukta. But this is designate, singly or collectively, the central figure of the Shakata cult, do not occur in the Rigveda. These names however are formed in the later Vedic texts11 . In the Puranas Kali came out of Ambika’s forhead furrowed with wrath against the Asura (demons) Chanda Munda, the mighty Asura generals of Sumbha, was given the name of Chamunda by the Devi, for Kali killed these mighty demons in battle and brought their heads to her. But the usually accepted lists supported by iconographic data consist of Brahamayani, Maheswori, Kaumari, Vaishnavi, Varahi, Indrani, and Chamunda, though there are some variants12 . Some later epic passages, mentiones that Alaxmi, her inauspicious opposite, also finds the place in the epic. Ninety-fourth chapter of Vanaparva of Mahabharat mention that Laxmi came to the God and Alaxmi to the Asuras, and the Asuras pervaded by Alaxmi and struck by Kali (the evil age) were destroyed13 . The Markandeya Purana informs that Kali is a production of Laxmi. The origin of all things is MahaLaxmi who visibly or invisibly pervades and dwells in all that is. Inventing from herself the character of darkness, sher gave origin to a form black as night with dreadful tusks and big eyes, and holds the sword, a goblet, a head and a shield, and is adorned with a necklace of skulls. She is distinguished by the name of Mahakali, Ekavira, Kalaratri and other similar appellations. Then from the quality of purity she procreated Saraswati. As soon as they were shaped, Mahalaxmi then addressed Mahakali and Saraswati: “Let us from our own forms produce twin deities”. She the created a male and a female, named Brahma and Laxmi; in the same way Mahakali produced Shiva and Saraswati. Saraswati produced Gauri and Vishnu. Mahakali then gave in-marriage Saraswati to Brahma, Gauri to Shiva, and Laxmi to Vishnu14.

Adhyatma Ramayan a chapter of Brahmavaivarta Purana provides another version of lineage of Kali. It mentions that when Rama returned home with Sita after decimating Ravana, he boastfully narrated the stories of his victories to Sita. She smiled and said “You rejoice because you have killed a Ravana with ten heads. But what would you do with a Ravana of a thousands heads?” Rama arrogantly boasted that he will decimate that Asura too. At this challenge of his wife, Rama collected his whole army and the army of all his allies, and started his journey for Shatdweep, the abode of this demon with one thousand hands. This new Ravana was more powerful Asura than the son of Bisrava demon, and shot three magic arrows from his bows. One of these sent all the monkeys to Kishkindha ,their place of residence;another sent the army of Vibhishana,who was an ally of Rama,and who was the ruler of Lanka after Ravana’s death,back to their region beyond seashore ;while the third arrow sent all soldiers of Rama back to Ayodhya.Rama felt humbled and then Sita chortling assumed the form of frightful Kali and she attacked this new Ravana with one thousand heads. After a fierce battle she killed the Asura, drank his blood and bagan to dance and toss about the limbs of his body. Shiva claimed her. However, this story has not received popular approval15 .

 
10. Information from websites http:/www.webonautics.com/mythologyu/shakti 4..
11. Jitendra Nath Banarjea, The Development of Hindu Iconography, p. 491.
12. Ibid, p.p. 504-505.
13. Ibid, p. 372.
14. M. J. Wilkins, Hindu Mythology,, p. 314.
15. Information from websites http:/www.webonautics.com/mythologyu/shakti 4
 
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Kali by contrast, represents wet with blood and skull symbolizing herself as the destroyer of evil. Her adoration has its dark “left hand” side, with sacrifices of animals and purportedly even humans. A “right-hand” version of devotion to Mother Kali consists of asking her help in transforming oneself. What appears as destruction is actually a mean of transformation. With her merciful sword she cuts away all personal impediments to realization of truth, for those who sincerely desire to achieve the transcendence. In the same time, she opens her arms to those who love her. Two of her four arms hold a sword and a human head; one of the other two gestures symbolizes “Fear not” and the other offers boon to her devotees. She seems ugly, yet she is very beautiful. The divine reality is wholeness encompassing both the pleasant and unpleasant aspects of creation and destruction16 .

All the Puranas dealing with Shakti worship sermonize the way of devotion as the only way of realizing the power of the Goddess and its form. Unlike Vaishnavism where the relationship of the devotee with the God is either of that of a master and a disciple or of friend, in Shaktism, the Goddess is the mother and complete submission on the part of the devotee17 .
Kali is worshipped in various forms on Hinduism. Kali is the Goddess of Tantrics. Tantrics believe that she resides in the cremation ground, where every thing is reduced to ashes-to the seed stage. Tantrics literature describes her image as most fearful. She laughs showing her dreadful teeth, stands upon a corpse, and has four arms. Her two hands carry a sword and a head. The other two are in Abhaya (removing fear) and Varada (granting boons). She is naked, clad only in space, her tongue hangs out and wears a garland of head and dwells near the funeral pyre. The corpse represents the non-existence nature of the ruined universe. Even at the time of destruction of the universe, the power of time remains. it can be interpreted of the unseen, and the seed of the universe. Her terrific appearance symbolizes the boundless power of destruction. She laughs in her triumph. The laughter is the expression of absolute domination over all existing things .it is a mocking laugh at those who hope to escape. Her four hands represent the four hands also stand as the symbol of the fulfillment of all the absoluteness of her domination over all that exist. Kali represents the circle of time consciousness of nature that transcends the short span of individual destiny. The Varada, the giving hand can be interpreted as something permanent. Kali the power of time is permanent and it alone can grant happiness. She is the giver of bliss. The garland of skull represents how life and death are inseparable. There is no life without death and no death without life. The one who supports the living and dead is the supreme happiness. She is helper of living as well as dead. All living and dead depend upon her. The mother’s nakedness represents the destruction of the universe. So, she remains naked representing the vast emptiness of space as her only vesture. The funeral pyre is the symbolic representation of destruction. There alone is she to be attained. The Mother’s black color represents the embodiment of the tendency towards obscuration “Tamas”. In the power of time all color dissolve into darkness. Her disheveled hair indicates that the Goddess is beyond bondage. In another image she is portrayed as being hungry for flesh and blood. Standing on a corpse with weapons of destruction in her hand she is shown with an image of scorpion on her stomach, which symbolizes her hunger for devouring the world .she is on top in the hierarchy of manifestation. In Hinduism, she represents a stage above all attachments, so she looks fierce to

 
16. Mary Pat Fisher and Robert Luyster, Living Religion, p. 83.
17. Sumita Banerjea, Indrama, Kali the Black Goddess vol. 15, No. 4, p. 8.
 
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us. To reach to the supreme bliss man has to give on up all this fear. In course of man’s spiritual development, the individuality dissolves into infinite joy18 . Her endless “Mother-aspect” sustains life while she simultaneously carries on her cataclysmic functions of creation and destruction.

In Bengal Kali worship is very popular, and in Kolkata itself, Kalighat and Dakshineshwor temples are the major spot for the pilgrimage. The most renowned devotee of Kali was Ramakrishna Paramahansa, a mystic-saint of the nineteenth century, who popularized Kali worship in Bengal, by reemphasizing her softer “Mother” image. Mahakali - the image prior to creation - when the world as we know it did not exit, when the Devi had no specific form. Shyamkali- the softer image, the protector of the house holder; Rakshakali- the image one turned to in times in natural disaster and finally Shamshankali who resides in the cremation ground, the image odf destruction. According to Ramakrishna, when the world got destroyed Kali collected from the debris the seeds of creation so that the universe could be reborn. Contempt her ferocious looks, it is the “gentler” the benevolent aspect of Kali that is popular in Bengal and it has even invented a genre of music called Shyama Sangeet. In Bengal, Kali Puja is celebrated with great enthusiasm in Durga Puja and Diwali festival. Kali is specifically worshipped in the evening. The rites of animal sacrifice, drinking of liquor and eating of meat are all associated with Kali Puja. The flowers offered to the Goddesses are red Jaba or hibiscus19.

Shakti, the energy has been worshipped in Nepal from time in memorial. The mythologies and chronicles narrate the same story that Kathmandu Valley was once a lake and one of the early Buddhas, meditating on top of gamacho threw a lotus seed. In the course of time the seed turned into a plant and the lotus bloomed, where we today have the stupa of Swayambhu. The stories further go on saying that Manjushree regarded that lotus radiating rays of seven different colors as manifestation of pre-modial Buddha, and (s) he covered that, and raised a stupa. Thus Guiheswaree, the source of that lotus flower is regarded as Nairatma by the Buddhists of Nepal, and is highly venerated. The Hindu version is that this is where the private organ of Sati fell down. Both the Hindu and Buddhist sources have praised her either in the form of Nairatma or Guiheswaree. Both the groups with equal zeal, respect and veneration visit this place.

Coming to the historic period we find developed form of Shakti worship as indicated by the Mananka coins. The obverse of this coin has a lion standing on three legs and one paw (leg) holding a decorative banner. The lion is associated with Durga (Simhanstkandha Semarudha). The tradition of this kind of lion, first found in the Mananka coin is sculptured and placed next to Kali or Shakti temple. Pratap Mall, Parthivendra Malla offered the same style golden lion in front of the Taleju Temple. Bimsen Thapa also donated a lion on Bagmati Bridge on the way to Patan. Sahebjyu Upendra Vickram offered the same style lion at the Taleju Shrine at Rajrajeswari Ghat of Pasupati. Likewise the cult of Shakti also continues in more developed form. The icon of mother goddesses representing Shakti cult are found in various forms in various places like Kirtipur, Patan, Kumbheswor, Chinnamasta, and date back to the Lichchhavi Era.

In the reign of King Mandeva, Bijayaswaminee the wife of Grihapati raised a temple and established Bhagvatee Vijayashree, at present commonly known as Palanchowk Bhagabatee. The art historians opine that the present sculpture of Palanchowk

 
18. M. R. Aryal, Kali in Hinduism, 20th Anniversary of Nepal Heritage Society, p. 66.
19. Sumita Banerjea, Indrama, Kali the Black Goddess vol. xv, No. 4, p.p. 7-8.
 
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Bhagawatee is not from the time of Mandeve Ist. This is not our concern and is beyond the scope of this article, right now, but the inscription reads (….Sthapite…Vijayashree).

The Inscription of Amsuvarma records Sasthi Devi and provides some fund. In Maligaon today there are two shrines by the name Sasthi Devi and are worshipped by the Saivite and Buddhist Newars separately. Many Kali or Bhagawatee icons of Lichhavi period have come to light indicating the popularity of Shakti or Kali cult during the period.

The chronicles credit King Gunakamadeva planned the city of Kathmandu placing eight mother goddesses in four directions and four points between them20 . The Kathmandu Valley is surrounded by a protective loop of Goddesses, known as the “eight mothers” (Astha Matrika). The eight Astha Matrika's names are Brahmayani, Maheshwori, Kumari, Vaishnavi, Varahi, Indrayani, Kali (Chamunda) and MahaLaxmi.

The early medieval statues of various forms of Kali are found in Nepal. The Royal Epithet like(Srimanmanswaristta Devata Varalabdha Prasad) Sri Jhankeswarista Devata Varlabdha Prasada and so on. Many manuscripts of Durga or Devi Mahtmya have been found from this period showing the popularity of Kali or Shakti cult. Around the middle of fourteenth century Taleju or Taleju, was brought to Kathmandu and soon she became the tutelary deity of the royal family worshipped in various forms.

Besides the Sapta Matrikas (the seven mother goddesses), Asthamatrikas (Eight mother goddesses) Nava Durga the nine forms of Durga, Dasha Mahavidhya, the ten transcendental knowledge, Sodasa Matarah (Gauryadi Sodase Matarah), the sixteen mothers starting from Gauri and all the way up to sixty-four forms of yoginis are equally revered by the people of Nepal.

There are Kalis like Dakshinkali, Raktakali, Swatakali, Bhadrakali, Mohankali and forms of Bhairavis like (Asan Bhalu Ajima ). The Kalis or the Shaktipithas in Nepal are with or without icons. The medieval society also started worshipping the Kumari virgin Goddess in human forms.

The Shaktipithas in Nepal are sometimes placed next to crematorium like Shobhabhagawati, Kankeswari, Balkumari, Maitidevi, Dakshin Kali and some times without crematorium. No matter, with or without status the people equally adore them. The Shakti is represented as Chamunda in fearful appearance, sometime as Jagadamba, the universal mother. May this be the Kali, Parvati, Guheswari, Taleju, Mahalaxmi, Kumari they are the same. The affectionate mother, tutor, nurse, or threatening are when the child makes a mistake.

The various forms of Kali are worshipped during the Dasai or Durga Puja by the smaratas and Shaktas, according to their tradition. During Durga Puja. The bright half-day if the month Aswin she is invoked in Kalasa or Ghata and the first day of the festival is known as Ghatasthapana. The seventh day, Bhadrakali is worshipped in form of vegetation lied sugarcane, rice plant with grains, turmeric plant, merry gold flower in every Hindu home. The state also celebrates this ceremony by bringing Fulpati form Gorkha to Hanumandhoka. The Shakti cult worshipped in Nepal is so significant that chapters and chapters would not be sufficient to describe them. It is to

 
20. Bibliographer Shankar Nath Adhikari, Vasha Vamsavali, Part II, p. 24.
 
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feel and enjoy. The author sometimes, intends to write about Shakti Cult in future. Let us conclude this with an eighteenth century Nepali poem by Udayananda Aryal.
He says “this Goddesses Kali is the favorite deity even of the rulers; she is called Maneswari, Brahmadevi, Manakamana, Manasa, Manamaiju. She is one but people call her by different names .”

This is the essence of the Upanishadas the great God is one but the scholars call her by different name. She is the supreme energy without which nothing on Earth can survive. She is the crescent of Omkara and the Crescent on OM is above meaning. She provides energy to Brahma, Vishnu and Siva for creation, protection and destruction, and is associated with them as Swaraswati, Laxmi and Kali. She is the Universal mother, the supreme Energy, the life of all living beings benevolent and beyond the scope of worlds, world and times.

The Westerners have studied the various tangible aspects of Kali and have written many volumes, but to understand it one has to be a part of it. It is form her everything starts and it is from her that every thing ends.

 
Gyan Mani Nepal, Shree Manmaneswari Devee, paper presented at the conference jointly organized by Kathmandu Municipality and Nepal Heritage Society 2002.
 
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Bibliography:


Adhikari Shankar Nath (Bibliographer) (B.S. 2003), VasshaVamsavali.(IInd part).
Kathmandu: Department of Archeology, Nepal National Library.

Banerjea, Jitendra Nath (1985) The Development of Hindu Iconography. (4th ed.).
India: Munishiram Monoharlal Publisher Pvt. Ltd.

Bridget & Allchin, Raymond (reprinted 1985). Cambridge World Archeology, The Rise of civilazition in India and Pakistan. Great Britain: The Bath Press, Avon.

Fisher, Mary Pat & (1990) An Encyclopeida of the world’s Faiths Living
Luyster, Robert Religions. London: I.B.Tauris &Co. Ltd.

Harding, Elizabeth U (1993).Kali. U.S.A.: York Beach Maine.

Hutt, Micheal (1994). Nepal. Great Britain: Kiscadale Publication.

Indrama. (The magazine of India) (1990) Vol XV. No.4. India: Thomson press.

Ji, shree Yaspal (……). Dash Mahavidhya. Jambu: Pustak Sansar

Mookerjee, Ajit (1998) Kali, The Feminine Force. Rochester: Destiny Books.

Singh, Rjdev Nanda (1982) Shaktapramod. Bombay: Banketswor Press.

Wilkins, W. J. (1983) Hindu Mythology. (2nd.). India: Rupa and Co.

20th Anniversary of Nepal Heritage Society. (Souvenir).(2001). Kathmandu: Nepal

(Published in Anveshan - A Reseach Journal of History and Culture, April 2002)

 
  Untitled Document
 

Nepalese Culture, Society and Tourism
By: Diwas Dhakal

This book is a collection
of essays devoted to the
Nepalese Culture,Society and Tourism. A special
stress on Natural and
cultural Heritage of Nepal has been very carefully emphasised.
Diwas Dhakal, 2000 ISBN 99933-570-0-6,
First Edition 2000
Published by:
Mukta Dhakl
Read more
Contents:

Tourism in Nepal: A Critical Analysis

Ghandruk: A Socio-cultural Study

The Aqua Culture of Kathmandu

People, Nature and Wild Life in Makalu - Barun

Purnachandi Bhuja Jatra of Patan: A Protection from Lightening

Vajrayan Buddhism and Nepal

The Accumulate Stupa of Ramagrama

The Stupa of Boudhnath: A World Heritage Site

Pagoda Style Architecture and Nepal

Development of Architecture in Nepal

 
 
 
 
 
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