The learned author has missed many aspects of Nepalese culture.
The so called Virupakshya is described by him as a nobel man. If the author
had studied more carefully he would not have missed the third eye indicating
that the figure is one of the manifestations of Shiva and not a nobel man.
Nepal is a tourist's paradise with an infinite variety of
interesting things to see and do. Nepal has many things to offer the visitor
the flourishing of art and architecture a demonstrated by the temples of
Kathmandu Valley, the natural beauties of the soaring peaks of Himalayas
including Mountain Everest and others.
O MOTHER! HOW SHALL
I CALL THEE?
SOMETIMES THOU SITTEST ON SHIVA'S LEFT
AND SOMETIMES THOU STANDEST ON SHIVA’S CHEST.
SOMETIMES THOU ART IN COSMIC FORM
AND SOMETIMES THOU ART A NUDE WOMAN;
AND SOMETIMES THOU KRISHNA FALLEN AT RADHA'S FEET.
SOMETIMES THOU ART MOTHER OF THE UNIVERSE
DWELLING IN THE FIVE ELEMENTS;
SOMETIMES THOU ART KULAKUNDALINI ON THE FOUR FETALLED LOTUS.
PRASADA SAYS, "I SHALL LISTEN TO NONE.”
THE NAME "MOTHER” IS PEERLESS.
THEREFORE, MOTHER, I CALL THEE “MOTHER” TO GET THY
SECURE FEET. - DR. JADUNATH SINHA
has already been proved that the evolution of Mother Worship
in India begins from the age of the Indus Valley Civilization
of Mohenjo -daro and Harappa and has continued to present.
The two opposite forces of nature- the male and female are
depicted by the Linga (the male
symbol) and Yoni (the female symbol).
This depictation of Shiva Shakti by the Linga- Yoni is a popular
religious practice in Hindu socio religious culture. In the
Tantric literature (both Hindu and Buddhist) the Lord (Bhagawan,
the male deity) is symbolically depicted by a white dot (
Shwetabindu), thus suggesting the
likeness of semen, while the creatrix (Bhagavati, the female
deity) is represented by a red dot (Shonabindu),
to suggest the analogy with the menstrual blood contained
in the ovum1 . Sir John Marshall mentions
that the religion of the Indus civilization was able to propose
certain basic elements. He concludes that the great numbers
of female terracotta figurines were the representation of
the Great Mother Goddess; and he rightly draws parallels between
this evidence and the Ubiquitous cult of Goddesses, particularly
that of Parvati consort of Shiva, throughout modern India
both in literature and practice. The vertical stones identical
to the Lingam, the phallic emblem
of Shiva, are found in the cities2
. These discoveries of Indus Valley prove that the worship
of Mother Goddess can be traced can be traced back to the
narrates an interesting episode on the origin of Dash
Mahabidhya (the Goddess representing the ten transcendental
knowledge)3 . Daksha Prajapati did
not invite his daughter Sati and her husband Shiva when he
performed a Yagya (ritual
# Central Department of Nepalese
History, Culture and Archeology, Tribhuvan University, Kritipur
1. Elizabeth U Harding, Kali, p.27.
2. Bridget and Raymond Allehin, The Rise of Civilization in
India and Pakistan, p.p. 213-214.
3. Shree Yaspalji, Dash Mahabidhya, p. 3.
ceremony). Sati though humiliated decided to attend
and requested Shiva to attend Daksha’s Yagya
ceremony. Lord Shiva refused her request. Sati tried her best
Shiva but failed. She also wasn’t permitted to visit there.
Sati at this denial became so furious and appeared as Dash Mahabidhyas
in the forms of Kali, Tara, Shodashi, Bhuwaneswori, Bhairavi,
Chhinnamasta, Dhumawati, Bagala, Matangi and Kamala on all ten
directions. When Lord Shiva saw such forms of Sati, he requested
her to interpret its mystery. Sati explained and said, “Allow
me to go to the Yagya so that I will be able to attent it otherwise
I will destroy the Yagya”.
At last, Shiva allowed her to go to the Yagya4
. Upon Sati’s insistence to attend the sacrifice, Shiva
gave up and asked the Nandi, his vehicle to take Sati to her
father’s residence. Upon arrival, Sati was glad to see
her father after such a long period. She was about to grasp
him, but he pushed her away. “Why did you come here? A
bummer’s wife!” shouted Daksha. He then proceeded
to slander Shiva, which was unbearable to her. And decided to
give up her life. All color drained from her body and she fell
dead at Daksha’s feet. The accompanying Nandi sadly returned
to Kailash and informed Shiva about the sad incident. Shiva
in grief and anger shook his matted locks and out of them leapt
a whole arm of giants, snakes and ghosts. They turned Daksha’s
palace to cinders in no time. Meanwhile, Shiva picked up the
dead body of Sati and while carrying it upon his shoulders,
he began the fearful dance of destruction. The dance shook the
world, causing earthquakes and tidal waves that menaced all.
For the shake of mankind, Vishnu hurled his discus again and
again at Sati’s corpse until her body fell to the earth,
piece by piece and it is said that all together. It took fifty-one
throws to destroy Sati’s body. As soon as Shiva felt her
weight gone, he returned to Kailash and confined himself in
solitary meditation. He became so absorbed that the Divine Mother,
reborn as Uma, had difficulty in seducing him to forget Sati
and marry her, went on noticed by him5
From the places where the fragments of Sati’s body
had fallen sprouted sacred Shakti pithas.
Ancient temples stand on these spots. Sati’s toes fell
at kalighat in south Kolkata, and she is still worshipped
there as Mother Kalika. The gem of Sati’s earring fell
on Manikarnikaghat in Baneres. Sati’s right and left
breast fell at Jalandhara and Ramagirishe is worshipped their
as Tripuramalini. Sati’s Yoni
fell at Kamakhya in Assam. This temple is one of the most
famous temples dedicated to Mother worshipped and specially
associated with disciplines practiced according to Tantra.
It houses the Mother’s image in the form of a Yoni shaped
(a symbolic representation) cleft in a rock that hides a natural
spring, keeping the cleft moist. Tantrics
say that the earth’s menstruation takes place their
in the Hindu month of Asar (July/August)6
. during the dark night of the moon (Ambuvacti) in Asar, after
the first burst of the monsoon, a great ceremony takes place
there, for the water runs red with iron-oxide, and the ritual
drink is symbolic to that of the Rajas(King) or Ritu of the
Devi, her menstrual blood7.
As it’s already been mentioned earlier, when Sati was
denied permission from Shiva to attend the Yagya been performed
by her father Daksha, she showed herself to him ten and Kamala.
The method of worshipping and the forms of Dash
Mahavidya are as follows. The black Kali is the embodiment
of time the primordial energy. She stands on a corpse; the
toothy Goddess Kali seems to be frightful and delighted. Her
four hands have Skull, Varad Mudra
(hand conferring grace or boon), sword, and Abhay
Mudra (protect in gesture), and on her neck she wears
a garland of recently chopped, blood dripping heads of those
she killed. Her tongue is red. Tara of
4. Ibid, p. 11.
5. Elizabeth U Harding, Kali, p.p. 27-28.
6. Ibid, p.p. 27-29.
7. Ajit Mookherjee, Kali, the Feminine Force, p. 30.
dark blue color personifies the power of aspiration
and spiritual ascent. Forwarding a leg ahead, of Goddess Tara
also stands on a corpse. She seems scary yet and has Padma (lotus),
sword, skull and sickle. Unique in form, she is short and has
blue and yellow Jata (the matted and long hair of an ascetic)
adorned with snakes. Shodashi represents perfection. Her face
is yellow and looks like the rising Sun. she has four hands
and three eyes. On Her hands she carries bow, hook, noose and
an arrow. Bhuwaneshwori represents infinite space. She appears
in the color of the rising Sun, has a bright crow on the head,
happy face, high- breast, her two hands are in Abhaya and Varada
Mudra, and has three eyes. She holds hooks and noose of ropes
in her hand. Bhuwaneswori nourishes the three worlds with her
large breast that ooze milk. Tripurbhairavi is the embodiment
of destruction; her complexion is red, and her breasts are besmeared
with blood. She looks like a mid day Sun. she is decorated with
light rays, garlanded with the head of her enemies and has blood
marks on her mouth. She has large breasts, hooks, erudition,
Varada Mudra, Abhaya Mudra, three eyes and a smiling face. She
is decorated with a bright crown. Chhinnamasta is the end of
existence and wears the color of a million rising Suns. She
stands in the cremation brown on the copulating bodies of Kama,
the God of lust, and his wife Rati.
With a foot ahead, she has uncovered and weapons on her hands.
Chhinnamasta is shown decapitated, holding her own head while
drinking her own blood that streams form her neck. Her head
on her left hand with a chaplet of snakes on Her head and garland
on Her breast, she stands confidently on the couple enjoy sex.
Dhumawati, clad in dirty white clothes, is the night of cosmic
slumber. Her hair is disheveled; she has no teeth and her breasts
are long and pendulum. She is tall and unstable and is cruel.
She rides a chariot that has a crow-marked banner. She has shagging
and long breast and trembling hands. She carries a mattock and
has cruel eyes and long nose with long Jatas.
One hand in Varada Mudra, she suffers from hunger and thirst.
Her appearance is frightening and she likes quarrel. Bagalamukhi,
who is the embodiment of illusion, has a yellow complexion,
and her head resembles that of a crane. She tortures enemies
by pulling their tongue with her hand and in the right hand
she carries Gada (mace) to destroy
the enemy. The devotees have been continuously worshipping pinions
Goddess Bagalamukhi decorated in yellow attire. Matangi dispels
evil, and the color of her skin is black. She is intoxicated,
reels about, and frightfully rolls her eyes. She is dark, three-eyed.
She wears moonlike crown and sits on throne made of expensive
pearls. She holds sword, Pasa (noose),
Gada, hook, Khetaka (a shield it
may be circular or rectangular) with her four hands. She enjoys
the music produced from a diamond coated fluid. And all offer
their worship to the virgin Goddess Matangi. Kamala is beautiful,
and her complexion is the color of the lightening. Kamala, who
reveals herself in good fortune, is seated on a lotus. She is
surrounded by four white elephants who pour pitchers of
Amrit (delicious liquid) through Kalas
(decorated copper water pot) over her. Kamala has a golden face
and holds two lotuses on her two hands. Her two hands are in
different Mudras - Abhaya Mudra and Varada Mudra. She wears
a bright crown, has beautifully curved buttock and seats on
Aside from the Goddesses depicted in the Dasha Mahavidhya,
there are so many other names and forms of the same Divine
Mother. In the Devi-kavacha attached
to the Chandi, the Mother Goddess as Navadurga is represented
as Shailaputri (the daughter of the mountain), Katyayani,
Kalaratri, Mahagauri and Siddhidatri9
. Other forms of Kali are Chamundi, Shmshan Kali (Goddesses
of cremation ground), Bhadrakali, Ugra chandi, Bhim Chandi,
8. Shree Yaspal ji, Dash Mahavidya, p.p. 15-65.
9. Elizabeth U Harding, Kali, p. 30
Sheetala (the Goddess of smallpox). People also
worship her to protect their children from dread diseases and
their homes against ill omens10 .
Thus, the expanded Shakti worship of the epic and Puranic
times was not a little indebted to these Goddesses concepts,
the very idea of Shakti being based on the central theme of
the Devi-Shukta. But this is designate,
singly or collectively, the central figure of the Shakata
cult, do not occur in the Rigveda.
These names however are formed in the later Vedic
texts11 . In the Puranas Kali
came out of Ambika’s forhead furrowed with wrath against
the Asura (demons) Chanda Munda,
the mighty Asura generals of Sumbha, was given the name of
Chamunda by the Devi, for Kali killed these mighty demons
in battle and brought their heads to her. But the usually
accepted lists supported by iconographic data consist of Brahamayani,
Maheswori, Kaumari, Vaishnavi, Varahi, Indrani, and Chamunda,
though there are some variants12 .
Some later epic passages, mentiones that Alaxmi, her inauspicious
opposite, also finds the place in the epic. Ninety-fourth
chapter of Vanaparva of Mahabharat
mention that Laxmi came to the God and Alaxmi to the Asuras,
and the Asuras pervaded by Alaxmi and struck by Kali (the
evil age) were destroyed13 . The Markandeya
Purana informs that Kali is a production of Laxmi.
The origin of all things is MahaLaxmi who visibly or invisibly
pervades and dwells in all that is. Inventing from herself
the character of darkness, sher gave origin to a form black
as night with dreadful tusks and big eyes, and holds the sword,
a goblet, a head and a shield, and is adorned with a necklace
of skulls. She is distinguished by the name of Mahakali, Ekavira,
Kalaratri and other similar appellations. Then from the quality
of purity she procreated Saraswati. As soon as they were shaped,
Mahalaxmi then addressed Mahakali and Saraswati: “Let
us from our own forms produce twin deities”. She the
created a male and a female, named Brahma and Laxmi; in the
same way Mahakali produced Shiva and Saraswati. Saraswati
produced Gauri and Vishnu. Mahakali then gave in-marriage
Saraswati to Brahma, Gauri to Shiva, and Laxmi to Vishnu14.
Adhyatma Ramayan a chapter of
Brahmavaivarta Purana provides
another version of lineage of Kali. It mentions that when
Rama returned home with Sita after decimating Ravana, he boastfully
narrated the stories of his victories to Sita. She smiled
and said “You rejoice because you have killed a Ravana
with ten heads. But what would you do with a Ravana of a thousands
heads?” Rama arrogantly boasted that he will decimate
that Asura too. At this challenge
of his wife, Rama collected his whole army and the army of
all his allies, and started his journey for Shatdweep,
the abode of this demon with one thousand hands. This new
Ravana was more powerful Asura than the son of Bisrava demon,
and shot three magic arrows from his bows. One of these sent
all the monkeys to Kishkindha ,their
place of residence;another sent the army of Vibhishana,who
was an ally of Rama,and who was the ruler of Lanka after Ravana’s
death,back to their region beyond seashore ;while the third
arrow sent all soldiers of Rama back to Ayodhya.Rama felt
humbled and then Sita chortling assumed the form of frightful
Kali and she attacked this new Ravana with one thousand heads.
After a fierce battle she killed the Asura, drank his blood
and bagan to dance and toss about the limbs of his body. Shiva
claimed her. However, this story has not received popular
10. Information from websites http:/www.webonautics.com/mythologyu/shakti
11. Jitendra Nath Banarjea, The Development of Hindu Iconography,
12. Ibid, p.p. 504-505.
13. Ibid, p. 372.
14. M. J. Wilkins, Hindu Mythology,, p. 314.
15. Information from websites http:/www.webonautics.com/mythologyu/shakti
Kali by contrast, represents wet with blood and
skull symbolizing herself as the destroyer of evil. Her adoration
has its dark “left hand” side, with sacrifices of
animals and purportedly even humans. A “right-hand”
version of devotion to Mother Kali consists of asking her help
in transforming oneself. What appears as destruction is actually
a mean of transformation. With her merciful sword she cuts away
all personal impediments to realization of truth, for those
who sincerely desire to achieve the transcendence. In the same
time, she opens her arms to those who love her. Two of her four
arms hold a sword and a human head; one of the other two gestures
symbolizes “Fear not” and the other offers boon
to her devotees. She seems ugly, yet she is very beautiful.
The divine reality is wholeness encompassing both the pleasant
and unpleasant aspects of creation and destruction16
All the Puranas dealing with Shakti worship sermonize the
way of devotion as the only way of realizing the power of
the Goddess and its form. Unlike Vaishnavism where the relationship
of the devotee with the God is either of that of a master
and a disciple or of friend, in Shaktism,
the Goddess is the mother and complete submission on the part
of the devotee17 .
Kali is worshipped in various forms on Hinduism. Kali is the
Goddess of Tantrics. Tantrics believe
that she resides in the cremation ground, where every thing
is reduced to ashes-to the seed stage. Tantrics literature
describes her image as most fearful. She laughs showing her
dreadful teeth, stands upon a corpse, and has four arms. Her
two hands carry a sword and a head. The other two are in Abhaya
(removing fear) and Varada (granting boons). She is naked,
clad only in space, her tongue hangs out and wears a garland
of head and dwells near the funeral pyre. The corpse represents
the non-existence nature of the ruined universe. Even at the
time of destruction of the universe, the power of time remains.
it can be interpreted of the unseen, and the seed of the universe.
Her terrific appearance symbolizes the boundless power of
destruction. She laughs in her triumph. The laughter is the
expression of absolute domination over all existing things
.it is a mocking laugh at those who hope to escape. Her four
hands represent the four hands also stand as the symbol of
the fulfillment of all the absoluteness of her domination
over all that exist. Kali represents the circle of time consciousness
of nature that transcends the short span of individual destiny.
The Varada, the giving hand can be interpreted as something
permanent. Kali the power of time is permanent and it alone
can grant happiness. She is the giver of bliss. The garland
of skull represents how life and death are inseparable. There
is no life without death and no death without life. The one
who supports the living and dead is the supreme happiness.
She is helper of living as well as dead. All living and dead
depend upon her. The mother’s nakedness represents the
destruction of the universe. So, she remains naked representing
the vast emptiness of space as her only vesture. The funeral
pyre is the symbolic representation of destruction. There
alone is she to be attained. The Mother’s black color
represents the embodiment of the tendency towards obscuration
“Tamas”. In the power of time all color dissolve
into darkness. Her disheveled hair indicates that the Goddess
is beyond bondage. In another image she is portrayed as being
hungry for flesh and blood. Standing on a corpse with weapons
of destruction in her hand she is shown with an image of scorpion
on her stomach, which symbolizes her hunger for devouring
the world .she is on top in the hierarchy of manifestation.
In Hinduism, she represents a stage above all attachments,
so she looks fierce to
16. Mary Pat Fisher and Robert Luyster, Living Religion,
17. Sumita Banerjea, Indrama, Kali the Black Goddess vol. 15,
No. 4, p. 8.
us. To reach to the supreme bliss man has to give
on up all this fear. In course of man’s spiritual development,
the individuality dissolves into infinite joy18
. Her endless “Mother-aspect” sustains life while
she simultaneously carries on her cataclysmic functions of creation
In Bengal Kali worship is very popular, and in Kolkata itself,
Kalighat and Dakshineshwor temples are the major spot for
the pilgrimage. The most renowned devotee of Kali was Ramakrishna
Paramahansa, a mystic-saint of the nineteenth century, who
popularized Kali worship in Bengal, by reemphasizing her softer
“Mother” image. Mahakali - the image prior to
creation - when the world as we know it did not exit, when
the Devi had no specific form. Shyamkali- the softer image,
the protector of the house holder; Rakshakali- the image one
turned to in times in natural disaster and finally Shamshankali
who resides in the cremation ground, the image odf destruction.
According to Ramakrishna, when the world got destroyed Kali
collected from the debris the seeds of creation so that the
universe could be reborn. Contempt her ferocious looks, it
is the “gentler” the benevolent aspect of Kali
that is popular in Bengal and it has even invented a genre
of music called Shyama Sangeet.
In Bengal, Kali Puja is celebrated with great enthusiasm in
Durga Puja and Diwali
festival. Kali is specifically worshipped in the evening.
The rites of animal sacrifice, drinking of liquor and eating
of meat are all associated with Kali Puja. The flowers offered
to the Goddesses are red Jaba or
Shakti, the energy has been worshipped in Nepal from time
in memorial. The mythologies and chronicles narrate the same
story that Kathmandu Valley was once a lake and one of the
early Buddhas, meditating on top of gamacho threw a lotus
seed. In the course of time the seed turned into a plant and
the lotus bloomed, where we today have the stupa of Swayambhu.
The stories further go on saying that Manjushree regarded
that lotus radiating rays of seven different colors as manifestation
of pre-modial Buddha, and (s) he covered that, and raised
a stupa. Thus Guiheswaree, the source of that lotus flower
is regarded as Nairatma by the Buddhists of Nepal, and is
highly venerated. The Hindu version is that this is where
the private organ of Sati fell down. Both the Hindu and Buddhist
sources have praised her either in the form of Nairatma
or Guiheswaree. Both the groups with equal zeal, respect and
veneration visit this place.
Coming to the historic period we find developed form of Shakti
worship as indicated by the Mananka
coins. The obverse of this coin has a lion standing on three
legs and one paw (leg) holding a decorative banner. The lion
is associated with Durga (Simhanstkandha
Semarudha). The tradition of this kind of lion, first
found in the Mananka coin is sculptured and placed next to
Kali or Shakti temple. Pratap Mall, Parthivendra Malla offered
the same style golden lion in front of the Taleju Temple.
Bimsen Thapa also donated a lion on Bagmati Bridge on the
way to Patan. Sahebjyu Upendra Vickram offered the same style
lion at the Taleju Shrine at Rajrajeswari Ghat of Pasupati.
Likewise the cult of Shakti also continues in more developed
form. The icon of mother goddesses representing Shakti cult
are found in various forms in various places like Kirtipur,
Patan, Kumbheswor, Chinnamasta, and date back to the Lichchhavi
In the reign of King Mandeva, Bijayaswaminee the wife of
Grihapati raised a temple and established Bhagvatee Vijayashree,
at present commonly known as Palanchowk Bhagabatee. The art
historians opine that the present sculpture of Palanchowk
18. M. R. Aryal, Kali in Hinduism, 20th Anniversary of Nepal
Heritage Society, p. 66.
19. Sumita Banerjea, Indrama, Kali the Black Goddess vol. xv,
No. 4, p.p. 7-8.
Bhagawatee is not from the time of Mandeve Ist.
This is not our concern and is beyond the scope of this article,
right now, but the inscription reads (….Sthapite…Vijayashree).
The Inscription of Amsuvarma records Sasthi Devi and provides
some fund. In Maligaon today there are two shrines by the
name Sasthi Devi and are worshipped by the Saivite and Buddhist
Newars separately. Many Kali or Bhagawatee icons of Lichhavi
period have come to light indicating the popularity of Shakti
or Kali cult during the period.
The chronicles credit King Gunakamadeva planned the city
of Kathmandu placing eight mother goddesses in four directions
and four points between them20 . The
Kathmandu Valley is surrounded by a protective loop of Goddesses,
known as the “eight mothers” (Astha Matrika).
The eight Astha Matrika's names
are Brahmayani, Maheshwori, Kumari, Vaishnavi, Varahi, Indrayani,
Kali (Chamunda) and MahaLaxmi.
The early medieval statues of various forms of Kali are found
in Nepal. The Royal Epithet like(Srimanmanswaristta
Devata Varalabdha Prasad) Sri JhankeswaristaDevataVarlabdhaPrasada and so on. Many manuscripts
of Durga or Devi Mahtmya have been found from this period
showing the popularity of Kali or Shakti cult. Around the
middle of fourteenth century Taleju or Taleju, was brought
to Kathmandu and soon she became the tutelary deity of the
royal family worshipped in various forms.
Besides the SaptaMatrikas
(the seven mother goddesses), Asthamatrikas
(Eight mother goddesses) Nava Durga the nine forms of Durga,
Dasha Mahavidhya, the ten transcendental
knowledge, Sodasa Matarah (Gauryadi Sodase Matarah), the sixteen
mothers starting from Gauri and all the way up to sixty-four
forms of yoginis are equally revered by the people of Nepal.
There are Kalis like Dakshinkali, Raktakali, Swatakali, Bhadrakali,
Mohankali and forms of Bhairavis like (Asan
Bhalu Ajima ). The Kalis or the Shaktipithas in Nepal
are with or without icons. The medieval society also started
worshipping the Kumari virgin Goddess in human forms.
The Shaktipithas in Nepal are sometimes placed next to crematorium
like Shobhabhagawati, Kankeswari, Balkumari, Maitidevi, Dakshin
Kali and some times without crematorium. No matter, with or
without status the people equally adore them. The Shakti is
represented as Chamunda in fearful appearance, sometime as
Jagadamba, the universal mother. May this be the Kali, Parvati,
Guheswari, Taleju, Mahalaxmi, Kumari they are the same. The
affectionate mother, tutor, nurse, or threatening are when
the child makes a mistake.
The various forms of Kali are worshipped during the Dasai
or Durga Puja by the smaratas and
Shaktas, according to their tradition.
During Durga Puja. The bright half-day if the month Aswin
she is invoked in Kalasa or Ghata
and the first day of the festival is known as Ghatasthapana.
The seventh day, Bhadrakali is worshipped in form of vegetation
lied sugarcane, rice plant with grains, turmeric plant, merry
gold flower in every Hindu home. The state also celebrates
this ceremony by bringing Fulpati
form Gorkha to Hanumandhoka. The Shakti cult worshipped in
Nepal is so significant that chapters and chapters would not
be sufficient to describe them. It is to
20. Bibliographer Shankar Nath Adhikari, Vasha
Vamsavali, Part II, p. 24.
feel and enjoy. The author sometimes, intends
to write about Shakti Cult in future.
Let us conclude this with an eighteenth century Nepali poem
by Udayananda Aryal.
He says “this Goddesses Kali is the favorite deity even
of the rulers; she is called Maneswari, Brahmadevi, Manakamana,
Manasa, Manamaiju. She is one but people call her by different
This is the essence of the Upanishadas the
great God is one but the scholars call her by different name.
She is the supreme energy without which nothing on Earth can
survive. She is the crescent of Omkara
and the Crescent on OM is above meaning. She provides energy
to Brahma, Vishnu and Siva for creation, protection and destruction,
and is associated with them as Swaraswati, Laxmi and Kali.
She is the Universal mother, the supreme Energy, the life
of all living beings benevolent and beyond the scope of worlds,
world and times.
The Westerners have studied the various tangible aspects
of Kali and have written many volumes, but to understand it
one has to be a part of it. It is form her everything starts
and it is from her that every thing ends.
Gyan Mani Nepal, Shree Manmaneswari Devee, paper presented
at the conference jointly organized by Kathmandu Municipality
and Nepal Heritage Society 2002.