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The learned author has missed many aspects of Nepalese culture. The so called Virupakshya is described by him as a nobel man. If the author had studied more carefully he would not have missed the third eye indicating that the figure is one of the manifestations of Shiva and not a nobel man.
Tourism in Nepal
Nepal is a tourist's paradise with an infinite variety of interesting things to see and do. Nepal has many things to offer the visitor the flourishing of art and architecture a demonstrated by the temples of Kathmandu Valley, the natural beauties of the soaring peaks of Himalayas including Mountain Everest and others.
The Symbolism of the Stupa
Diwas Dhakal
T.U., Kirtipur


Author: Adrian Snodgrass

Publisher: Cornell Southeast Asia Programme, 1985

First Indian Edition: Motilal Banarasidas Publishers Pvt. Ltd., Delhi, 1992

ISBN: 81-208-0781-2

Price of Indian Edition: Rs. 300 Indian Currency.

286 Figures, 26 Pages of Bibliography, list of illustration.
Index, An introductory Preface by Craig J. Ronalds, Table of contents and the text is divided in two parts: the First part has thirteen Chapters and the second hs hard cover.nine, The whole volume has 469 pages and an arlialic

Prof. Adriam Snodrass of Australia is an well known scholar of Asian culture. He studied Indian culture, mostly the Buddhism in India and Sri Lanka for more than 6 years and in Japan as well where he observed Buddhism visiting all the Buddhist temples. Since 1976, he has been teaching Asian Art and Architecture at the university of Australia. He is a great scholar of Far Eastern Buddhism. and has written extensively.

In The symbolism of the stupa,he has used classical Buddhist literature both of Theravadins and Mahayan School of Buddhism to interpret the plan, symbolic meaning of the every details of the stupa from most of the Asian countries.One of the greatest and academic aspect of the present volume in hand is that he has used the contemporary texts of Hindu architecture to explain the development of Stupas from simple mound to complicated forms. He talks about architectural symbolism and analysis of the Stupa, then gradually move on to explaining the spatial configuration of the Stupa and the ritual demarcation of it. He has provided a new light of thought to the academic world in general and specifically to the Students of Buddhism and Buddhist architecture.He mainly focuses on the Stupa and its relation and symbolism of directions and space, while doing so he compares them with Vedic Fire Altars from macrocosm to microcosm. Thus providing a new thought process, he continues the deployment of Space in iconography, art and architecture and the Buddhist Kingdom.

The Stupa is explained from various angles as the wheel plan, and the lotus plan symbolising the circle and Square respectively. The plan of the Stupa as developed from Mandala, while describing and explaining this he also compares them with the Vastu Purusa Mandala. Every details of t he stupa has been explained citing examples and texts of Pali and Sanskrit literature. Through the explanation of the stupa and its development he has given or provided many examples from Hindu ions and vedic literature. He is among the very few foreigner, who knows the meaning of a Shivalinga other than an object of Phallicism cult. To him Shiva Linga is cosmos . The author providing some example from the Vengi art of Amaravati has shown that even Buddha was adoraded as a fiery pillar, not as Lingam or phallus but as an universal axis. This shows the depth of knowledge the author has and wants to share with he academic circle. Hundreds of examples from vedic literature like Srutis and Smrits have given a fine touch to this book..

The second of the book deals in detail and the Symbolism of the Axis, the Pillar and Buddhism, the pillar and its place in Hinduism, where Shiva is addressed as Sthanubhuta, Aja Eakpada is compared with the Yasthi .

The symbolic meaning of the dome, the whole super structure, Harmika and various kinds of spires are described in detail and in a convincing way citing examples from the stupas and literature.

This volume with many drawing and photographs provides an in-depth knowledge of Buddhism as well as of Hinduism.

Many ideas provided in this book is based upon hypothesis. The author has provided many hypothesis which yet has to be proved and accepted .
Reference to terminology from Pali and Sanskrit makes a difficult read especially for those who are unfamiliar with Pali and Sanskrit .

This book is not free from errors but the attempt of the author to cover almost every aspect of the Stupa architecture is praiseworthy. .

A Glossary of original words would have added the value of this book.

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Nepalese Culture, Society and Tourism
By: Diwas Dhakal

This book is a collection
of essays devoted to the
Nepalese Culture,Society and Tourism. A special
stress on Natural and
cultural Heritage of Nepal has been very carefully emphasised.
Diwas Dhakal, 2000 ISBN 99933-570-0-6,
First Edition 2000
Published by:
Mukta Dhakl
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