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The learned author has missed many aspects of Nepalese culture. The so called Virupakshya is described by him as a nobel man. If the author had studied more carefully he would not have missed the third eye indicating that the figure is one of the manifestations of Shiva and not a nobel man.
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Tourism in Nepal
Nepal is a tourist's paradise with an infinite variety of interesting things to see and do. Nepal has many things to offer the visitor the flourishing of art and architecture a demonstrated by the temples of Kathmandu Valley, the natural beauties of the soaring peaks of Himalayas including Mountain Everest and others.
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Stupa
 

The stupa mostly covered with white dome is solid from inside and has no way to get in .This is called garva or anda. Some Physical remains of Buddha, or his disciple, or other dignitaries of Buddhist faith would be kept in a golden, silver or copper in the center of the dome.

Although the evolution of stupa is developed as a burial mound as in the ancient tradition of India, the Nepalese stupas are primarily a place of worship since time immemorial.

The Mahayana school paved the way for the development of stupa making it in more symbolic and elegant way .An earliest school stupa was simple in the form a lump of clay. As time passed by, various schools of Buddhism like Mahayana, Vajrayana and Lamaism influenced stupa architecture. Their philosophy made the stupa more elegant and decorative as well as philosophically complicated.

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Matha

 

Mathas meaning a hut, also known as a cottage, a place where retired people, students, and ascetic people visit, provides some teaching through Brahmans and was popular in India during pre-Christian era. Along with modernization, mathas were established by AdiSankaracharya (teacher of the world) of eight century had revitalized Hinduism establishing math based on the teaching of vedanta. One of the orthodox of the vedic philosophy or philosophic religious doctrine based on the teaching of the Upanishads. Even today Vedanta holds an important place in the philosophy of Hinduism) in the four corners of India to promote Hindu (Vedic) philosophy and thinking along with traditional Vedic education. The system soon became popular in Northern India also. Yaksha Malla (the popular king of Bhaktapur who ruled Kathmandu Valley from 1428 to 1482 A.D) established many Mathas for various sects to provide education and shelter to the students and Sadhus. Nepali Mathas share similar responsibilities to those of Indian Mathas. The Mathas of Nepal being rich in terms of landholding (in the form of property trust) served the poor people, welcome guests as well as performs Hindu ritulas to support the Sadhus.
When Buddhism declined, due to disharmony and divergence from the original dogma, Hinduism had is renaissance mainly through the brilliant expositions of Hindu philosophy by Adi Sankacharya. The Brahmans(the absolute, the supreme reality of Vedanta phiosophy knowing person is Brahman) who for some time had been relegated to the background, were able to re-establish and further improve their influence over the common people in around 8th century AD This influence was further extended to the rulers. It was also about this time that rest house for pilgrims were built at eloquent site of well known Hindu center. These rest houses, also serve as meeting place of Gurus and Sadhus and other learned people. In a short time, these became significant center for Hindu learning. It is still a subject for research regarding when first mathas in Nepal were constructed. It can be fairly assumed that the basic plan for the still existing mathas was probably built around the mid fourteen century. Mathas are like Monasteries, the Buddhist education center, where Mahanta (chief priest) provide education, shelter for ascetic people and food. Mahantas are also known as Mathadhis.

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Dhunge Dhara (Hiti)
 
Dhunge Dhara- Hiti made of stone, is a channelised spout of water serving as tap with a shrine attached. Gaa in the Newari language of the valley means “a deep place” and Hiti means “a spout” or “a water tap”. Gaa hity are also known as Dhunge Dhara in Nepali (dhunge means "stone" and dhara means "a spout" or "a water tap". It is nicely placed in a symmetrical order and made to appear from a vertical wall. Dhunge Dhara is sunken, stone-paved "tanks" circular, rectangular, square and different shape and size from several to more than thirty meters in diameter. These are not filled with water- they are a sort of sunken rooms with a flight of steps leading down to a water spout which emerges from one wall.

Usually Hitis have crocodile head called Makara, and from its mouth flows out water. However in some hitis, there are the heads of Goat, cow, elephant, cock and tiger as well and from the mouth water comes out.
Generally the Hitis stand as Bhagirath underneath supporting the culvert either in standing or squatting position with blowing conch shell. According to the Hindu, mythology, Bhagirath is the man responsible for bringing down the river Ganga, from heaven to the earth with great meditation. In certain hitis we find Yaksas and Yasinis standing underneath supporting the conduit in squatting position.

 
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Nepalese Culture, Society and Tourism
By: Diwas Dhakal

This book is a collection
of essays devoted to the
Nepalese Culture,Society and Tourism. A special
stress on Natural and
cultural Heritage of Nepal has been very carefully emphasised.
Diwas Dhakal, 2000 ISBN 99933-570-0-6,
First Edition 2000
Published by:
Mukta Dhakl
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Contents:

Tourism in Nepal: A Critical Analysis

Ghandruk: A Socio-cultural Study

The Aqua Culture of Kathmandu

People, Nature and Wild Life in Makalu - Barun

Purnachandi Bhuja Jatra of Patan: A Protection from Lightening

Vajrayan Buddhism and Nepal

The Accumulate Stupa of Ramagrama

The Stupa of Boudhnath: A World Heritage Site

Pagoda Style Architecture and Nepal

Development of Architecture in Nepal

 
 
 
 
 
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