The learned author has missed many aspects of Nepalese culture.
The so called Virupakshya is described by him as a nobel man. If the author
had studied more carefully he would not have missed the third eye indicating
that the figure is one of the manifestations of Shiva and not a nobel man.
Nepal is a tourist's paradise with an infinite variety of
interesting things to see and do. Nepal has many things to offer the visitor
the flourishing of art and architecture a demonstrated by the temples of
Kathmandu Valley, the natural beauties of the soaring peaks of Himalayas
including Mountain Everest and others.
valley’s wood work with architectural design has spread
throughout Nepal but the Valley was its source and its home.
Valley is the fine example of the achievements in wood works.
The carved and painted wooden struts supporting the roofs,
windows, wall bends, beams, lintel, rafter, tympanum, brackets,
pillar and plaster are among the finest examples of Nepalese
art. The period also witnesses the countless woodwork on architecture
and other edifices, richly decorated with wood splendid in
carving. It seems the entire artistic skill of the artists
was exploited in producing the wooden component of the structure,
as very little opportunity was left to display in brick. A
very high quality of wood work has been displayed in almost
all the traditional architecture. It is a pleasure to mention
here that the woodwork is a living art in the Kathmandu valley
Another popular feature of Nepalese architecture is the artistic
windows. The design and construction of windows have become
an important focus for displaying in Nepalese architecture,
the wood -work both in external design and skill joinery work.
The windows are made from many prefabricated units of varying
shapes and sizes without using any metal nail or glue. Each
window consists of two frames inner and outer, richly carved
and both frames are held together by wooden ties and nails.
The latticework of the window generally combines three different
patterns: the perforated, the serrated and key patterns. Window
is very common element for building, which may be a palace,
temples or monasteries or a private house. Light and ventilation
is the main function of these windows but religious importance
is also added to it by putting divinities or objects of worship
as a motif on these. Windows are combinations of grills and
frame and the frames may have decoration of auspicious symbols,
flower, mesh style, geometrical design, and perfect in symmetrical
order and always kept in odd number. Symbolization of sun
and moon, representation of auspicious symbols, birds motifs
are popular works which are displayed in most of the monuments.
Style temple is also popular in the valley. The Shikhara in
Sanskrit means "top of the world", symbolically
representing the snow clad mountain peaks and thus it indicates,
to a certain extent, the shape of the temple. The image is
conceived some what like Shikhara of Hindu temple, which was
interpreted as a sacrificial microcosm of the world. According
to this concept the plinth was regarded as alter, on which
was built a superstructure representing the residence of Gods,
mount Kailasha and the mythical mountain Meru.
The principle architectural features of the temple are as
follows: The sanctuary as a whole is known as the Vimana,
of which the upper and pyramidal or tapering portion is called
Shikhara, meaning tower or spine. Inside the Vimana is a small
and generally dark chamber or cella for the reception of the
divine symbol. This cella is the garbhagriha, or "womb-house",
and was entered by addressing on its inner and usually, eastern
side. Shikhara surmounts a single cell, to which no mandapa
The stone structure in Nepal was top sawyer from Lichchhavi
period. The inscription of Manadeva (A.D.464) found at Lazimpat
and Tilaganga. Vishnuvikranta sculpture states the existence
of the style "Laxmivat Bhavana". It has been suggested
that the Laxmivat is the Shikhara type temple.
The main features of Nepalese Shikhara style are: The stepped
plinth or the multi plinth, heavy cornices, strong pillars,
or Patan temple architecture feeding of straight and solidity,
only in part interacted by the delicate fritzes. A significant
feature of Nepalese Shikhara temple is the presence of the
terraces with multi number of pavilions on top. Krishnamandir
is the existing example completely built of stone with two
accessible terraces and altogether twentyone pavilion. The
stone pillars reliefs on all sides of the building depict
motifs from the two epics, Ramayana and Mahabarata.
Another popular Shikhara style architecture is Mahabouddha.
This is the best example of Nepalese terracotta temple architect
built in 1600 A. D. It took exactly 36 years to complete the
project spanning three consecutive generations’ manual
Nepalese Culture, Society and Tourism By: Diwas Dhakal