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The learned author has missed many aspects of Nepalese culture. The so called Virupakshya is described by him as a nobel man. If the author had studied more carefully he would not have missed the third eye indicating that the figure is one of the manifestations of Shiva and not a nobel man.
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Tourism in Nepal
Nepal is a tourist's paradise with an infinite variety of interesting things to see and do. Nepal has many things to offer the visitor the flourishing of art and architecture a demonstrated by the temples of Kathmandu Valley, the natural beauties of the soaring peaks of Himalayas including Mountain Everest and others.
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Wood Carving
 
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Though Kathmandu valley’s wood work with architectural design has spread throughout Nepal but the Valley was its source and its home. Valley is the fine example of the achievements in wood works. The carved and painted wooden struts supporting the roofs, windows, wall bends, beams, lintel, rafter, tympanum, brackets, pillar and plaster are among the finest examples of Nepalese art. The period also witnesses the countless woodwork on architecture and other edifices, richly decorated with wood splendid in carving. It seems the entire artistic skill of the artists was exploited in producing the wooden component of the structure, as very little opportunity was left to display in brick. A very high quality of wood work has been displayed in almost all the traditional architecture. It is a pleasure to mention here that the woodwork is a living art in the Kathmandu valley even today.

Another popular feature of Nepalese architecture is the artistic windows. The design and construction of windows have become an important focus for displaying in Nepalese architecture, the wood -work both in external design and skill joinery work. The windows are made from many prefabricated units of varying shapes and sizes without using any metal nail or glue. Each window consists of two frames inner and outer, richly carved and both frames are held together by wooden ties and nails. The latticework of the window generally combines three different patterns: the perforated, the serrated and key patterns. Window is very common element for building, which may be a palace, temples or monasteries or a private house. Light and ventilation is the main function of these windows but religious importance is also added to it by putting divinities or objects of worship as a motif on these. Windows are combinations of grills and frame and the frames may have decoration of auspicious symbols, flower, mesh style, geometrical design, and perfect in symmetrical order and always kept in odd number. Symbolization of sun and moon, representation of auspicious symbols, birds motifs are popular works which are displayed in most of the monuments.

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SHIKARA

 

Shikhara Style temple is also popular in the valley. The Shikhara in Sanskrit means "top of the world", symbolically representing the snow clad mountain peaks and thus it indicates, to a certain extent, the shape of the temple. The image is conceived some what like Shikhara of Hindu temple, which was interpreted as a sacrificial microcosm of the world. According to this concept the plinth was regarded as alter, on which was built a superstructure representing the residence of Gods, mount Kailasha and the mythical mountain Meru.
The principle architectural features of the temple are as follows: The sanctuary as a whole is known as the Vimana, of which the upper and pyramidal or tapering portion is called Shikhara, meaning tower or spine. Inside the Vimana is a small and generally dark chamber or cella for the reception of the divine symbol. This cella is the garbhagriha, or "womb-house", and was entered by addressing on its inner and usually, eastern side. Shikhara surmounts a single cell, to which no mandapa is attached.

The stone structure in Nepal was top sawyer from Lichchhavi period. The inscription of Manadeva (A.D.464) found at Lazimpat and Tilaganga. Vishnuvikranta sculpture states the existence of the style "Laxmivat Bhavana". It has been suggested that the Laxmivat is the Shikhara type temple.
The main features of Nepalese Shikhara style are: The stepped plinth or the multi plinth, heavy cornices, strong pillars, or Patan temple architecture feeding of straight and solidity, only in part interacted by the delicate fritzes. A significant feature of Nepalese Shikhara temple is the presence of the terraces with multi number of pavilions on top. Krishnamandir is the existing example completely built of stone with two accessible terraces and altogether twentyone pavilion. The stone pillars reliefs on all sides of the building depict motifs from the two epics, Ramayana and Mahabarata.
Another popular Shikhara style architecture is Mahabouddha. This is the best example of Nepalese terracotta temple architect built in 1600 A. D. It took exactly 36 years to complete the project spanning three consecutive generations’ manual touch.

 
 
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Nepalese Culture, Society and Tourism
By: Diwas Dhakal

This book is a collection
of essays devoted to the
Nepalese Culture,Society and Tourism. A special
stress on Natural and
cultural Heritage of Nepal has been very carefully emphasised.
Diwas Dhakal, 2000 ISBN 99933-570-0-6,
First Edition 2000
Published by:
Mukta Dhakl
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Contents:

Tourism in Nepal: A Critical Analysis

Ghandruk: A Socio-cultural Study

The Aqua Culture of Kathmandu

People, Nature and Wild Life in Makalu - Barun

Purnachandi Bhuja Jatra of Patan: A Protection from Lightening

Vajrayan Buddhism and Nepal

The Accumulate Stupa of Ramagrama

The Stupa of Boudhnath: A World Heritage Site

Pagoda Style Architecture and Nepal

Development of Architecture in Nepal

 
 
 
 
 
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